26 May 2021 In Liver Disease
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Increasingly populations are both overweight/obese and consume alcohol. The risk of liver disease from the combination of these factors is unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to address this important gap in evidence. Protocol registered with PROSPERO(CRD42016046508). METHODS: We performed electronic searches of Ovid Medline, Embase Classic + Embase, until 17th June 2020 for cohort studies of adults without pre-existing liver disease. Primary outcome was morbidity/mortality from chronic liver disease. Exposures were alcohol consumption categorised as within or above UK recommended limits (14 units/112 g per week) and BMI categorised as normal, overweight or obese. Non-drinkers were excluded. A Poisson regression log-linear model was used to test for statistical interaction between alcohol and BMI and to conduct a one-stage meta-analysis. RESULTS: Searches identified 3129 studies-16 were eligible. Of these, nine cohorts (1,121,514 participants) had data available and were included in the analysis. The Poisson model showed no significant statistical interaction between alcohol consumption and BMI on the risk of chronic liver disease. Compared to normal weight participants drinking alcohol within UK recommended limits, relative risk of chronic liver disease in overweight participants drinking above limits was 3.32 (95% CI 2.88 to 3.83) and relative risk in obese participants drinking above limits was 5.39 (95% CI 4.62 to 6.29). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrated a significantly increased risk of chronic liver disease in participants who were both overweight/obese and consumed alcohol above UK recommended limits. This evidence should inform advice given to patients and risk stratification by healthcare professionals.
26 May 2021 In Drinking Patterns
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the study was to examine the effect of calorie labelling and physical activity equivalence labelling of alcoholic drinks on drinking intentions in participants of lower and higher socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS: Participants (N = 1,084) of higher and lower SEP were recruited into an online study and randomized into one of three drink label conditions; Control (standard alcohol labelling), kcal labelling (standard labelling plus drink kilocalorie information), or kcal + PACE labelling (standard labelling and kilocalorie information, plus information on physical activity needed to compensate for drink calories). After viewing drink labels, participants reported alcohol drinking intentions. Participants also completed measures of alcoholic drink energy content estimation, beliefs about how calorie labelling would affect health behaviour and support for calorie labelling of alcoholic drinks. RESULTS: kcal labelling (d = 0.31) and kcal + PACE labelling (d = 0.38) conditions had significantly lower drinking intentions compared to the control condition (ps
26 May 2021 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Female breast cancer (FBC) is a malignancy involving multiple risk factors and has imposed heavy disease burden on women. We aim to analyze the secular trends of mortality rate of FBC according to its major risk factors.

METHODS: Death data of FBC at the global, regional, and national levels were retrieved from the online database of Global Burden of Disease study 2017. Deaths of FBC attributable to alcohol use, high body-mass index (BMI), high fasting plasma glucose (FPG), low physical activity, and tobacco were collected. Estimated average percentage change (EAPC) was used to quantify the temporal trends of age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of FBC in 1990-2017.

RESULTS: Worldwide, the number of deaths from FBC increased from 344.9 thousand in 1990 to 600.7 thousand in 2017. The ASMR of FBC decreased by 0.59% (95% CI, 0.52, 0.66%) per year during the study period. This decrease was largely driven by the reduction in alcohol use- and tobacco-related FBC, of which the ASMR was decreased by 1.73 and 1.77% per year, respectively. In contrast, the ASMR of FBC attributable to high BMI and high FPG was increased by 1.26% (95% CI, 1.22, 1.30%) and 0.26% (95% CI, 0.23, 0.30%) per year between 1990 and 2017, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rate of FBC experienced a reduction over the last three decades, which was partly owing to the effective control for alcohol and tobacco use. However, more potent and tailored prevention strategies for obesity and diabetes are urgently warranted.

24 March 2021 In General Health
Mandatory energy (calorie) labeling of alcoholic drinks is a public health measure that could be used to address both alcohol consumption and obesity. We systematically reviewed studies examining consumer knowledge of the energy content of alcoholic drinks, public support for energy labeling, and the effect of energy labeling of alcoholic drinks on consumption behavior. Eighteen studies were included. Among studies examining consumer knowledge of the energy content of alcoholic drinks (N = 8) and support for energy labeling (N = 9), there was moderate evidence that people are unaware of the energy content of alcoholic drinks (pooled estimate: 74% [95% CI: 64%-82%] of participants inaccurate) and support energy labeling (pooled estimate: 64% [95% CI: 53%-73%] of participants support policy). Six studies examined the effect of energy labeling on consumption behavior. In these studies, there was no evidence of a beneficial effect of labeling on alcohol drinking-related outcome measures. However, the majority of studies were of low methodological quality and used proxy outcome measures, and none of the studies were conducted in real-world settings, resulting in a very low level of evidence and high degree of uncertainty. Further research is required to determine whether energy labeling of alcoholic drinks is likely to be an effective public health policy.
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