29 January 2023 In Diabetes

AIM: We aimed to investigate the combined impact of liver enzymes and alcohol consumption on the diabetes risk. METHODS: Data on 5972 non-diabetic participants aged 30-79 years from the Suita study were analyzed.

Diabetes incidence was surveyed every 2 years. Current daily alcohol consumption was defined as light drinking (< 23.0 g ethanol/day in men and < 11.5 g in women), moderate drinking (23.0-45.9 g and 11.5-22.9 g), and heavy drinking (>/= 46.0 g and >/= 23.0 g). The nondrinkers category included both never-drinkers and former drinkers. RESULTS: During the median follow-up of 13 years, 597 incident diabetes cases were diagnosed.

Higher levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (GPT), and aspartate aminotransferase (GOT) were associated with an increased diabetes risk, and current light drinkers had a lower risk of diabetes than nondrinkers.

No sex differences were observed in these associations. Compared to nondrinkers having the lowest quartiles of liver enzymes, nondrinkers and current moderate/heavy drinkers having the highest quartiles had an increased risk of diabetes.

However, no association was observed for current light drinkers having the highest quartiles of liver enzymes; the multivariable hazard ratios (95% CIs) in current light drinkers with the highest quartile of liver enzymes were 1.27 (0.68-2.37) for GGT, 1.05 (0.59-1.89) for GPT, and 0.76 (0.40-1.47) for GOT, respectively.

CONCLUSION: High liver enzymes were associated with an increased diabetes risk. No increased diabetes risk was observed in current light drinkers, even in these who had high levels of liver enzymes.

25 January 2023 In Diabetes

AIM: We aimed to investigate the combined impact of liver enzymes and alcohol consumption on the diabetes risk. METHODS: Data on 5972 non-diabetic participants aged 30-79 years from the Suita study were analyzed. Diabetes incidence was surveyed every 2 years. Current daily alcohol consumption was defined as light drinking (< 23.0 g ethanol/day in men and < 11.5 g in women), moderate drinking (23.0-45.9 g and 11.5-22.9 g), and heavy drinking (>/= 46.0 g and >/= 23.0 g). The nondrinkers category included both never-drinkers and former drinkers. RESULTS: During the median follow-up of 13 years, 597 incident diabetes cases were diagnosed. Higher levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (GPT), and aspartate aminotransferase (GOT) were associated with an increased diabetes risk, and current light drinkers had a lower risk of diabetes than nondrinkers. No sex differences were observed in these associations. Compared to nondrinkers having the lowest quartiles of liver enzymes, nondrinkers and current moderate/heavy drinkers having the highest quartiles had an increased risk of diabetes. However, no association was observed for current light drinkers having the highest quartiles of liver enzymes; the multivariable hazard ratios (95% CIs) in current light drinkers with the highest quartile of liver enzymes were 1.27 (0.68-2.37) for GGT, 1.05 (0.59-1.89) for GPT, and 0.76 (0.40-1.47) for GOT, respectively. CONCLUSION: High liver enzymes were associated with an increased diabetes risk. No increased diabetes risk was observed in current light drinkers, even in these who had high levels of liver enzymes.

24 March 2021 In Pregnant Women
Alcohol consumption remains prevalent among pregnant and nursing mothers despite the well-documented adverse effects this may have on the offspring. Moderate-to-high levels of alcohol consumption in pregnancy result in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) disorders, with brain defects being chief among the abnormalities. Recent findings indicate that while light-to-moderate levels may not cause FAS, it may contribute to epigenetic changes that make the offspring prone to adverse health outcomes including metabolic disorders and an increased propensity in the adolescent-onset of drinking alcohol. On the one hand, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes epigenetic changes that affect lipid and glucose transcript regulating genes resulting in metabolic abnormalities. On the other hand, it can program offspring for increased alcohol intake, enhance its palatability, and increase acceptance of alcohol's flavor through associative learning, making alcohol a plausible second hit for the development of alcohol-induced liver disease. Adolescent drinking results in alcohol dependence and abuse in adulthood. Adolescent drinking results in alcohol dependence and abuse in adulthood. Alterations on the opioid system, particularly, the mu-opioid system, has been implicated in the mechanism that induces increased alcohol consumption and acceptance. This review proposes a mechanism that links PAE to the development of alcoholism and eventually to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which results from prolonged alcohol consumption. While PAE may not lead to ALD development in childhood, there are chances that it may lead to ALD in adulthood.
25 August 2020 In Liver Disease

BACKGROUND: Favorable association between modest alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease had been reported in general population, however, whether observed benefit extend to men with established fatty liver disease remains unknown.

METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 10,581 consecutive male participants aged 30 years or older undergoing abdominal ultrasonography and carotid artery ultrasonography were screened. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was diagnosed with ultrasonography and exclusion of secondary causes for fat accumulation or other causes of chronic liver disease. Modest alcohol use was defined as consumption of less than 20 g of alcohol per day.

RESULTS: There were total 2280 men diagnosed with fatty liver, and the mean age was 51.8 years old. Among them, 1797 were modest alcohol drinkers. The prevalence of carotid plaques (55.3% vs. 43.4%, p < 0.001) and carotid artery stenosis (11.0% vs. 5.5%, p < 0.001) was higher in non-drinkers than modest drinkers. Modest alcohol consumption had the independent inverse association with carotid plaques [odd ratio (OR): 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-0.92] and carotid artery stenosis (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.43-0.90), adjusted for age, smoking and metabolic syndrome.

CONCLUSIONS: Modest alcohol consumption had a favorable association with carotid plaque or CAS in men with NAFLD

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