15 June 2022 In Cancer

PURPOSE: To investigate how a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) is associated with breast cancer risk and survival in a population-based breast cancer study.

METHODS: The study included 1319 breast cancer cases and 1310 controls from the population-based Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project and its follow-up study where vital status was ascertained using the National Death Index (521 deaths, 210 from breast cancer; median follow-up 214.5 months). HLI scores were generated from body mass index, physical activity, intake of plant and animal foods, alcohol consumption, breastfeeding, and smoking, with higher values corresponding to healthier behaviors obtained from baseline questionnaire. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression models were used to estimate breast cancer odds ratios (ORs) and mortality hazards ratios (HRs), respectively.

RESULTS: Compared to women in the low HLI tertile, a significant reduction in risk of breast cancer was observed for women in the intermediate (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.93) and high (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.60-0.88) tertiles; a one-point increase in HLI score was associated with a 14% reduction in breast cancer risk (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.80-0.93). For survival, a significant reduction in all-cause mortality was also observed in women in the intermediate (HR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.56-0.84) and high (HR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.58-0.88) HLI tertiles with a 17% reduction in all-cause mortality (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.91) for one-point increase in HLI score. These inverse associations were more prominent among postmenopausal women.

CONCLUSION: A healthy lifestyle is beneficial not only in reducing breast cancer risk but also in improving overall survival after breast cancer diagnosis, especially among postmenopausal women.

28 April 2022 In General Health

This work aimed to relate alcohol consumption with adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and with food neophobia (FN) among Italian and Spanish university students. Volunteers (n = 194, 108 Italian and 86 Spanish), recruited at the La Sapienza University of Rome and the Catholic University of Murcia, filled in standardized questionnaires to evaluate alcohol consumption (AUDIT), FN (FN Scale: FNS), and adherence to the MD (MDS-14, MED-55, QueMD).

In addition to the previously reported QueMD sub-score (aMED), a sub-score for non-typical MD foods (ntMED, carbonated and/or sugar-sweetened beverages (soft drinks), butter, margarine, or cooking cream, and manufactured sweets, pastries, and cakes) was evaluated. Italian females had higher MED-55 and FNS scores, and a lower AUDIT score than Spaniards (p < 0.01). Students who stayed with their family (resident) were more adherent to MD than those who moved away from home. Resident Italians consumed less beer, hard liquors, and cocktails than Spaniards on Saturday nights (p < 0.01).

There were negative correlations between AUDIT and QueMD (R squared: 0.137, p < 0.05), and AUDIT and ntMED (R squared: 0.201, p < 0.01) in Spaniards, however, there was no relationship between AUDIT and other MD scores. In conclusion, this pilot study suggests that non-typical MD foods and Saturday night consumptions, related to being far from home, have a great impact on alcohol consumption.

22 March 2022 In Cardiovascular System

Alcohol consumption is a known, modifiable risk factor for incident atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it remains unclear whether the protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption-that has been reported for various cardiovascular diseases also applies to the risk for new-onset AF.

The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the role of different drinking patterns (low: 168 grams/week) on the risk for incident AF. Major electronic databases were searched for observational cohorts examining the role of different drinking behaviors on the risk for incident AF. We analyzed 16 studies (13,044,007 patients). Incident AF rate was 2.3%. Moderate alcohol consumption significantly reduced the risk for new-onset AF when compared to both abstainers (logOR: -0.20; 95%CI: -0.28--0.12; I2: 96.71%) and heavy drinkers (logOR: -0.28; 95%CI: -0.37--0.18; I2: 95.18%). Heavy-drinking pattern compared to low also increased the risk for incident AF (logOR: 0.14; 95%CI: 0.01-0.2; I2: 98.13%).

Substantial heterogeneity was noted, with more homogeneous results documented in cohorts with follow-up shorter than five years. Our findings suggest a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and incident AF. Up to 14 drinks per week seem to decrease the risk for developing AF. Because of the substantial heterogeneity observed, no robust conclusion can be drawn.

In any case, our results suggest that the association between alcohol consumption and incident AF is far from being a straightforward dose-response effect.

23 February 2022 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: The dose-response association between alcohol consumption and the subsequent pancreatic cancer risk by individuals' glycaemic status is unclear.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD: This large-scale nationwide cohort study included 9,514,171 adults without cancer who underwent health examinations under the Korean National Health Insurance Service in 2009 and were followed-up until December 2017 for pancreatic cancer development. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed.

RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 7.3 years, 12,818 patients were newly-diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Among individuals with normoglycemia, a J-shaped association was observed between the frequency of alcohol consumption (1-2 and >/=5 days/week: hazards ratio [HR]; 95% CI, 0.91; 0.85-0.97 and 1.13; 1.002-1.27, respectively) and pancreatic cancer risk, after adjusting for potential confounders. However, in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), pancreatic cancer risk increased with increased frequency and average daily amount of alcohol consumption (all P for trend <0.01). IFG combined with heavy alcohol consumption (30 g/day) was associated with 38% increased pancreatic cancer risk (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.23-1.54). Diabetes was associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk regardless of alcohol consumption and 70% increased risk even in non-drinkers (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.61-1.80).

CONCLUSIONS: The J-shaped dose-response association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk was observed only in individuals with normoglycemia, not in patients with IFG and diabetes. Complete alcohol abstinence may help reduce pancreatic cancer risk in patients with IFG and diabetes.

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