25 January 2023 In Phenolic compounds

Resveratrol is a bioactive polyphenolic compound mainly present in grapes and red wine.

It is known to exert beneficial effects in various experimental settings, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and immunoregulatory.

Accumulating evidence suggests these health benefits might be, at least partially, attributed to resveratrol's role in protecting the intestinal barrier, regulating the gut microbiome, and inhibiting intestinal inflammation.

The purpose of this review is to examine the bioactivities of resveratrol in disease prevention and health promotion from the standpoint of regulating the gut microbiome.

The article aims to provide additional insight into the potential applications of resveratrol in the food and nutraceutical industry.

26 August 2022 In Phenolic compounds

SCOPE: This paper explores the effects of moderate red wine consumption on the clinical status and symptomatology of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), including the study of the oral and intestinal microbiome.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A case control intervention study in UC patients is designed. Intervention patients (n = 5) consume red wine (250 mL day(-1) ) for 4 weeks whereas control patients (n = 5) do not. Moderate wine consumption significantly (p < 0.05) improves some clinical parameters related to serum iron, and alleviates intestinal symptoms as evaluated by the IBDQ-32 questionnaire. 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicate a non-significant (p > 0.05) increase in bacterial alpha diversity after wine intervention in both saliva and fecal microbiota. Additional comparison of taxonomic data between UC patients (n = 10) and healthy subjects (n = 8) confirm intestinal dysbiosis for the UC patients. Finally, analysis of fecal metabolites (i.e., phenolic acids and SCFAs) indicates a non-significant increase (p > 0.05) for the UC patients that consumed wine.

CONCLUSIONS: Moderate and regular red wine intake seems to improve the clinical status and symptoms of UC patients in the active phase of the disease. However, studies with a greater sample size are required to achieve conclusive results.

28 April 2022 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies confirmed that moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a reduced risk of adverse cardiovascular events. It is increasingly recognized that the composition of gut microbiota and metabolites is involved in modulating the cardiovascular health of the host. However, the association of moderate alcohol consumption with serum metabolites and gut microbiome and its impact on coronary artery disease (CAD) is not fully investigated.

METHOD: Serum untargeted metabolomics analysis and fecal 16S rRNA sequencing were performed on 72 male patients with CAD having various alcohol consumption (36 non-drinkers, 18 moderate drinkers, and 18 heavy drinkers) and 17 matched healthy controls. MetaboAnalyst and PICRUSt2 were utilized to analyze the possible involved metabolic pathways. Multi-omics analysis was achieved by Spearman correlation to reveal the interactions of alcohol consumption with gut microbiome and serum metabolites in patients with CAD.

RESULTS: We noted distinct differences between patients with CAD, with varying levels of alcohol consumption and healthy controls in aspects of serum metabolome and the gut microbiome. Moderate alcohol consumption significantly changed the lipidomic profiles, including reductions of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids in moderate drinkers with CAD when compared with non and heavy drinkers with CAD. Moreover, we also found the reduction of microbial-derived metabolites in moderate drinkers with CAD, such as 2-phenylacetamide and mevalonic acid. To be noted, the gut microbiota of moderate drinkers with CAD tended to resemble that of healthy controls. Compared with non-drinkers, the relative abundance of genus Paraprevotella, Lysinibacillus was significantly elevated in moderate drinkers with CAD, while the genus Bifidobacterium, Megasphaera, and Streptococcus were significantly reduced in moderate drinkers with CAD. Multi-omics analysis revealed that specific metabolites and microbes associated with moderate alcohol consumption were correlated with the severity of CAD.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that the impact of moderate alcohol consumption on serum metabolites and gut microbiota in patients with CAD seemed to be separated from that of heavy and non-alcohol consumption. Moderate drinking tended to have more positive effects on metabolic profiles and commensal flora, which may explain its beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. Overall, our study provides a novel insight into the effects of moderate alcohol consumption in patients with CAD.

23 February 2022 In General Health

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the fastest growing cognitive decline-related neurological diseases. To date, effective curative strategies have remained elusive. A growing body of evidence indicates that dietary patterns have significant effects on cognitive function and the risk of developing AD. Previous studies on the association between diet and AD risk have mainly focused on individual food components and specific nutrients, and the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of dietary patterns on AD are not well understood.

This article provides a comprehensive overview of the effects of dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet, Mediterranean-DASH diet intervention for neurological delay (MIND), ketogenic diet, caloric restriction, intermittent fasting, methionine restriction, and low-protein and high-carbohydrate diet, on cognitive impairment and summarizes the underlying mechanisms by which dietary patterns attenuate cognitive impairment, especially highlighting the modulation of dietary patterns on cognitive impairment through gut microbiota. Furthermore, considering the variability in individual metabolic responses to dietary intake, we put forward a framework to develop personalized dietary patterns for people with cognitive disorders or AD based on individual gut microbiome compositions.

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