OBJECTIVE: To identify parenting strategies associated with adolescent alcohol consumption that parents can use to implement new national guidelines regarding alcohol consumption by people under the age of 18.

METHODS: A systematic search of academic literature employing the PRISMA method identified 77 relevant articles. Inclusion criteria for the review were (i) longitudinal cohort studies; (ii) measurement of one or more parenting factors during adolescence or pre-adolescence (between the ages of 8 and 17) as a predictor (iii) outcome measurement of any alcohol use and/or alcohol related problems during adolescence at least one time point after the initial parenting factor was measured, and/or problem drinking in adulthood. Studies were excluded if alcohol use was combined with other substance use or problem behaviour as an outcome variable, or if different parenting factors were combined as a single predictor variable for analysis. Stouffer's method of combining p values was used to determine whether associations between variables were reliable.

RESULTS: Twelve parenting variables were investigated in these studies: parental modelling, provision of alcohol, alcohol-specific communication, disapproval of adolescent drinking, general discipline, rules about alcohol, parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, family conflict, parental support, parental involvement, and general communication. We found that delayed alcohol initiation was predicted by: parental modelling, limiting availability of alcohol to the child, parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, parental involvement and general communication. Reduced levels of later drinking by adolescents were predicted by: parental modelling, limiting availability of alcohol to the child, disapproval of adolescent drinking, general discipline, parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, parental support and general communication.

CONCLUSIONS: A number of parenting strategies were identified that parents can use to reduce their adolescent's alcohol consumption. These could be promoted to parents to help them implement new national guidelines on alcohol use.

BACKGROUND: International concern regarding the increase in preventable harms attributed to adolescent alcohol consumption has led to growing political and medical consensus that adolescents should avoid drinking for as long as possible. For this recommendation to be adopted, parents and guardians of adolescents require information about strategies that they can employ to prevent or reduce their adolescent's alcohol use that are supported by evidence.

METHODS: The Delphi method was used to obtain expert consensus on parenting strategies effective in preventing and reducing adolescent alcohol consumption. A literature search identified 457 recommendations for parents to reduce their adolescent child's alcohol use. These recommendations were presented to a panel of 38 Australian experts who were asked to rate their importance over three survey rounds.

RESULTS: There were 289 parenting strategies that were endorsed as important or essential in reducing adolescent alcohol use by >/=90% of the panel. These strategies were categorised into 11 sub-headings: things parents should know about adolescent alcohol use, delaying adolescent's introduction to alcohol, modelling responsible drinking and attitudes towards alcohol, talking to adolescents about alcohol, establishing family rules, monitoring adolescents when unsupervised, preparing adolescents for peer pressure, unsupervised adolescent drinking, what to do when an adolescent has been drinking without parental permission, hosting adolescent parties, and establishing and maintaining a good parent-child relationship. The endorsed strategies were written into a document suitable for parents.

CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive set of parenting strategies for preventing or reducing adolescent alcohol consumption were identified. These strategies can be promoted to parents to help them implement national recommendations for use of alcohol by young people.

This paper presents a meta-analysis of prospective cohort (longitudinal) studies of alcohol marketing and adolescent drinking. The paper provides a narrative summary of 21 longitudinal studies, and 12 of these are selected for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Each study surveyed a sample of youth to determine baseline drinking status and marketing exposure, and re-surveyed the youth to determine subsequent drinking outcomes. Logistic analyses provide estimates of the log-odds ratio for effects of baseline marketing on drinking at follow-up. Two meta-samples are analyzed: 23 effect-size estimates for drinking onset (initiation); and 40 estimates for drinking behaviors (frequency, amount, binging). Marketing methods include ads in mass media (TV, magazines), promotion portrayals (branded merchandise, movie displays), and subjective evaluations (liking of ads). Publication bias is assessed using funnel plots that account for "missing" studies, bivariate regressions (Egger test), and multivariate regressions that account for study heterogeneity, publication bias, journal quality, and data dependencies. The empirical results are consistent with publication bias, misspecification in some studies, and lack of a genuine effect, especially for mass media. The paper also discusses the issue of "dissemination bias" in the use of research results by investigators and health policy interest groups.

Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic regression tested the effects of beverage-specific use on consequences (e.g., alcohol use in the past month, week, heavy drinking, and ever drunkenness). Compared to wine users, adolescents who reported drinking hard liquor during their last drinking occasion had increased odds of alcohol use during the past month (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.01-2.05), past week (OR = 3.37; 95% CI = 1.39-8.18), and ever drunkenness (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.07-2.29). Use of hard liquor was associated with increased risk of alcohol-related consequences. Early selection of certain alcoholic beverages (e.g., hard liquor) may result in negative health outcomes and problematic alcohol use over time.

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