04 December 2014 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

AIM: To assess the association between heavy episodic drinking (HED) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) in young people in Norway.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: We analysed data on past-year HED and DSH from the second (1994) and third (1999) waves of the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study (cumulative response rate: 68.1%, n = 2647). Associations between HED and DSH were obtained as odds ratios and population-attributable fractions (PAF) applying fixed-effects modelling, which eliminates the effects of time-invariant confounders.

FINDINGS: An increase in HED was associated with an increase in risk of DSH (OR = 1.64, P = 0.013), after controlling for time-varying confounders. The estimated PAF was 28% from fixed-effects modelling and 51% from conventional modelling.

CONCLUSION: Data on Norwegian youths show a statistically significant association between heavy episodic drinking and deliberate self-harm.

04 December 2014 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

Aims : The purpose of this study is to examine the gender-specific associations of different dimensions of individual-level social capital with regular alcohol consumption and binge drinking in 16-17 years old adolescents in Crete, Greece. Methods : Of the 835 randomly selected students, 708 completed the Youth Social Capital Scale and the Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire from April through June 2008 and 650 (92%) were included in this analysis. The outcome of interest was regular alcohol use and binge drinking. A gender specific backward stepwise logistic multivariate regression was performed adjusted for potential confounders.

Findings : For both boys and girls, higher score on some structural social capital subscales was associated, per unit increase, with increased likelihood of regular drinking. Neighbourhood connections were also associated with increased binge drinking in girls. Cognitive social capital subscales were associated with decreased likelihood of binge drinking in girls. For both genders, total social capital-score was positively associated with the probability of regular, but not of binge drinking.

Conclusions : Cognitive and structural social capital dimensions have different patterns of association with regular and binge alcohol use in adolescent boys and girls. Social capital's dimensions should receive greater emphasis for the design of effective preventive interventions in adolescence, particularly in the light of an increasing prevalence of alcohol consumption in modern societies.

Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/09687637.2014.899994

04 December 2014 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

BACKGROUND: Uni-dimensional measures of alcohol consumption may be unable to fully capture the complexity of adolescent drinking and experience of alcohol-related harms. Latent class analysis provides an empirical method to understand different adolescent drinking patterns.

METHODS: Latent class analysis was used to create typologies of drinking among the 5018 current drinkers in the national Youth '07 survey. Determinants of drinking patterns were identified using multinomial logistic regression.

RESULTS: Four latent classes were identified, demonstrating an overall increase in risk of alcohol-related outcomes from increasing consumption. One class strongly deviated from this pattern, having moderate consumption patterns but disproportionately high levels of alcohol-related problems. Multinomial logistic regression found that the strongest predictors of belonging to high-risk drinking typologies were having a positive attitude to regular alcohol use, buying own alcohol, peers using alcohol, and obtaining alcohol from friends and/or other adults. Other significant predictors included being male, having a strong connection to friends, having parents with a low level of knowledge of their daily activities and poor connection to school. Class membership also varied by ethnicity.

CONCLUSION: The latent class approach demonstrated variability in alcohol-related harms across groups of students with different drinking patterns. Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine the causes of this variability in order to inform the development of targeted policy and preventative interventions. Legislative controls, such as increasing the legal purchase age and reducing the commercial availability of alcohol, will continue to be important strategies for reducing harm in young people.

OBJECTIVES: To document quantity and cash value of underage and adult Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-defined abusive and dependent drinking as well as underage drinking and adult DSM-IV-defined abusive and dependent drinking combined to the alcohol industry.

DESIGN: Analysis of multiple cross-sectional national data sets.

SETTING: The 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, the 2000 US Census, the 2000 to 2001 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, and the 2001 Adams Business Research.

PARTICIPANTS: A total of 260,580 persons aged 12 years and older across 4 data sources.

MAIN EXPOSURE: Underage drinking or pathological drinking defined as meeting the DSM-IV criteria for abusive or dependent drinking.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total amount of alcohol consumed and the cash value for alcohol consumed among underage and adult drinkers with DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence as well as all underage drinkers combined with adult drinkers with DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence.

RESULTS: The short-term cash value of underage drinking to the alcohol industry was 22.5 billion dollars in 2001-17.5% of total consumer expenditures for alcohol. The long-term commercial value of underage drinking is the contribution of underage drinking to maintaining consumption among adult drinkers with alcohol abuse and dependence, which was equal to at least 25.8 billion dollars in 2001.

CONCLUSIONS: The combined value of illegal underage drinking and adult pathological drinking to the industry was at least 48.3 billion dollars, or 37.5% of consumer expenditures for alcohol, in 2001. Alternative estimates suggest that these costs may be closer to 62.9 billion dollars, or 48.8% of consumer expenditures for alcohol.

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