28 August 2015 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

OBJECTIVE: Alternative methods of alcohol consumption have recently emerged among adolescents and young adults, including the alcohol "eyeballing", which consist in the direct pouring of alcoholic substances on the ocular surface epithelium. In a context of drug and behavioural addictions change, "eyeballing" can be seen as one of the latest and potentially highly risky new trends. We aimed to analyze the existing medical literature as well as online material on this emerging trend of alcohol misuse.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature on alcohol eyeballing was searched in PsychInfo and Pubmed databases. Results were integrated with a multilingual qualitative assessment of the database provided by The Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN) and of a range of websites, drug fora and other online resources between March 2013 and July 2013.

RESULTS: Alcohol eyeballing is common among adolescents and young adults; substances with high alcohol content, typically vodka, are used for this practice across the EU and internationally. The need for a rapid/intense effect of alcohol, competitiveness, novelty seeking and avoidance of "alcoholic fetor" are the most frequently reported motivations of "eyeballers". Local effects of alcohol eyeballing include pain, burning, blurred vision, conjunctive injection, corneal ulcers or scarring, permanent vision damage and eventually blindness.

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol eyeballing represents a phenomenon with potential permanent adverse consequences, deserving the attention of families and healthcare providers. Health and other professionals should be informed about this alerting trend of misuse. Larger observational studies are warranted to estimate the prevalence, characterize the effects, and identify adequate forms of interventions for this emerging phenomenon.

28 August 2015 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

The use of a standard definition of 'binge drinking' can potentially offer the advantage of 'objectifying' the concept of excessive drinking. Nevertheless, the term has become somewhat confusing, as it is often used as a synonym of drunkenness, making cross-cultural comparison difficult. The present study investigates the meaning Italian young people attribute to binge drinking, to explain the gap between self-reported rates of drunkenness and episodes of binge drinking found by comparative youth drinking surveys. About 134 face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted, targeting adolescents (aged 15-17) and young adults (aged 22-24) who had admitted to drinking excessively. In addition, an online forum was created, using a video clip as a stimulus and asking for web users' comments (132 were analysed). Results show how in the view of Italian bingers, binge drinking does not necessarily entail drunkenness, but only being tipsy. This is what they aim at when they drink, while they have negative attitudes and expectations regarding intoxication and its effects. This boundary establishes the concept of excess and marks the threshold between socially acceptable and unacceptable drinking. In conclusion, the concept of binge drinking cannot be used as a synonym of drunkenness, which young people in Italy judge severely.

Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/270589630_Binge_drinking_vs._drunkenness._The_questionable_threshold_of_excess_for_young_Italians.

28 August 2015 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

OBJECTIVES: To estimate compliance with Canada's Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines (LRDG) in different groups of drinkers after adjusting for underreporting of alcohol use, and to identify which types of beverage are more likely to be consumed when LRDGs are exceeded.

METHOD: Our sample consisted of 43,242 Canadians aged 15 and over who had responded to the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey, 2008-2010. Consumption in excess of LRDG was estimated for subgroups of drinkers after adjustment for under-reporting of consumption. Responses to Beverage-Specific Yesterday questions were used to make age-, gender- and beverage-specific corrections to under-reporting for data from the last 12 months Quantity-Frequency questions. Statistics Canada data on sales of beer, wine and spirits were also incorporated into the adjusted calculations.

RESULTS: After adjustment for under-reporting, non-compliance with weekly LRDG limits to reduce risk of long-term harm increased from 6.8% to 27.3% among drinkers, and from 42.3% to 68.3% with respect to drinks. Non-compliance with daily LRDG limits to reduce risk of short-term harm increased from 16.7% to 38.6% among drinkers, and from 53.3% to 80.5% with respect to drinks. After adjustment, over 92% of total consumption occurred on risky drinking days among underage Canadians and over 91% of consumption reported by young adults took place during risky drinking occasions. Wine was least likely to be drunk in a risky fashion, spirits were the most likely.

CONCLUSION: When corrections for under-reporting are made, most Canadian alcohol consumption occurs on days when national LRDG are exceeded, especially for underage and young adult drinkers.

26 March 2015 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

BACKGROUND: Studies such on alcohol and injuries have defined alcohol-related injury as an injury with a positive self-report of alcohol consumption in the 6h prior to the event. However, there is very limited data on the pattern of alcohol use over time of day and day of week among the general population. The aim of this study is to estimate the rate of alcohol use by time of day, and day of week for the U.S. general adult (>/=18 years) population.

METHODS: This study employed the design of a retrospective cohort study using data collected from three waves (2005-06, 2007-08, 2009-10) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Incidence rates of overall drinking (>/=10g of alcohol) and incidence rates of heavy drinking (>/=40g of alcohol) were estimated for day of week, and time of day (in hours). Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to investigate the difference between weekend nights and weekday nights.

RESULTS: The incidence rates (95% confidence interval) of all drinking episodes were 30.5 (29.2-32.0) per 100 person-days and 24.4 (22.8-26.2) per 100 person-days for weekend and the rest of the week, respectively. The incidence rates of heavy drinking episodes were 11.0 (10.2-11.9) and 7.7 (6.8-8.7) for weekend and the rest of the week. Multivariable analysis indicated that risks of overall drinking and heavy drinking were significantly higher (18% and 34%, respectively) during the weekend nights when compared to weekday nights. It was also observed young adults (18-29 years old) were more likely to increase their alcohol use during weekend nights compared to older age groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The general US population, especially young adults are exposed to alcohol and its acute effects at a much higher level during the night, and this in-turn increases the risk of alcohol-related injuries during that time.

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