06 May 2014 In Diabetes




BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported inverse associations of coffee, tea, and alcohol intake with risk of type 2 diabetes, but none has reported results separately among African American women.

OBJECTIVE: We prospectively examined the relation of coffee, tea, and alcohol consumption to diabetes risk in African American women.

DESIGN: The study included 46,906 Black Women's Health Study participants aged 30-69 y at baseline in 1995. Dietary intake was assessed in 1995 and 2001 by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. During 12 y of follow-up, there were 3671 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for diabetes risk factors.

RESULTS: Multivariable RRs for intakes of 0-1, 1, 2-3, and >/=4 cups of caffeinated coffee/d relative to no coffee intake were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.04), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.01), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.93), and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.01), respectively (P for trend = 0.003). Multivariable RRs for intakes of 1-3, 4-6, 7-13, and >/=14 alcoholic drinks/wk relative to never consumption were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.00), 0.68 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.81), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.96), and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.98), respectively (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of decaffeinated coffee and tea were not associated with risk of diabetes.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that African American women who drink moderate amounts of caffeinated coffee or alcohol have a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.




06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Although several observational studies have consistently reported an inverse association between moderate alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), it is yet not well established if this association also exists among people with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between the frequency and quantity of alcohol intake and the risk of developing CHD among postmenopausal women with diabetes.

METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study, which included 3,198 women with self-reported diabetes and without any history of cardiovascular disease at baseline, in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Alcohol intake was assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. The primary outcome of this study was CHD, which was validated by medical record review. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for the association of alcohol intake and risk of incident CHD while adjusting for several potential confounders.

RESULTS: During the 22,546 person-years of follow-up, there were 336 incident cases of CHD. Both frequency and quantity of alcohol intake were inversely associated with the risk of developing CHD. Compared to nondrinkers, the multivariable HRs across categories of frequency of alcohol consumption (/=2 drinks/week) were 0.89 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.63, 1.26), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.25) and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.99), respectively (p for trend: 0.04). This association did not appear to differ based on the type of the alcoholic beverage consumed.

CONCLUSIONS: Moderate alcohol consumption of postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes may have a benefit on CHD similar to that seen in postmenopausal nondiabetic women. The potential risks of alcohol on noncardiac outcomes may need consideration when recommending alcohol to women with diabetes.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of diet in the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We explored the prospective relation of dietary patterns, food groups, and nutrients to incident VTE in older women.

METHODS: In 1986, Iowa women aged 55 to 69 years completed a mailed survey, including a 127-item food frequency questionnaire. These data were linked to Medicare data from 1986 to 2004, and International Classification of Diseases discharge codes were used to identify hospitalized VTE cases. Cox regression analyses evaluated relations of 2 principal components-derived dietary patterns, 11 food groups, and 6 nutrients to VTE, adjusted for age, education, smoking status, physical activity, and energy intake.

RESULTS: Over 19 years of follow-up, 1,950 of the 37,393 women developed VTE. Women consuming alcohol daily were at 26% (95% CI 11%-38%) lower risk of VTE as compared to nonconsumers. All alcoholic beverages types were in the direction of lower risk; however, only beer and liquor were statistically significant. After basic adjustments, coffee was inversely related to VTE, and diet soda and fish positively related. However, these associations were confounded and became nonsignificant after adjustment for body mass index and diabetes. No associations were observed with consumption of 'Western' or 'Prudent' dietary patterns, fruit, vegetables, dairy, meat, refined grains, whole grains, regular soda, vitamins E, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate, omega-3 fatty acids, or saturated fat.

CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of older women, greater intake of alcohol was associated with a lower risk of incident VTE. No other independent associations were seen between diet and VTE.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System
BACKGROUND: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of total mortality among Caucasian women. Whether moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of total mortality among African-American or hypertensive women is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 10,576 black and 105,610 white postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), without a history of cancer or cardiovascular disease, who completed the baseline examinations in 1994-1998. RESULTS: During the mean 8 years of follow-up, 5,608 women died. Moderate drinking (1 to
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