06 May 2014 In Osteoporosis

BACKGROUND: Past studies of relationships between alcohol and hip fracture have generally focused on total alcohol consumed and not type of alcohol. Different types of alcohol consist of varying components which may affect risk of hip fracture differentially. This study seeks to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption, with a focus on type of alcohol consumed (e.g. beer, wine, or hard liquor) and hip fracture risk in post-menopausal women.

METHODS: The longitudinal cohort consisted of U.S. post-menopausal women aged 50-79 years enrolled between 1993-1998 in the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trials and Observational Study (N=115,655).

RESULTS: Women were categorized as non-drinkers, past drinkers, infrequent drinkers and drinkers by preference of alcohol type (i.e. those who preferred wine, beer, hard liquor, or who had no strong preference). Mean alcohol consumption among current drinkers was 3.3 servings per week; this was similar among those who preferred wine, beer and liquor. After adjustment for potential confounders, alcohol preference was strongly correlated with hip fracture risk (p = 0.0167); in particular, women who preferred wine were at lower risk than non-drinkers (OR=0.78; 95% CI 0.64-0.95), past drinkers (OR=0.85; 95% CI 0.72-1.00), infrequent drinkers (OR=0.73; 95% CI 0.61-0.88), hard liquor drinkers (OR=0.87; 95% CI 0.71-1.06), beer drinkers (OR=0.72; 95% CI 0.55-0.95) and those with no strong preference (OR=0.89; 95% CI 0.89; 95% CI 0.73-1.10).

CONCLUSIONS: Preference of alcohol type was associated with hip fracture; women who preferentially consumed wine had a lower risk of hip fracture compared to non-drinkers, past drinkers, and those with other alcohol preferences.

06 May 2014 In General Health




BACKGROUND: The obesity epidemic is a major health problem in the United States. Alcohol consumption is a source of energy intake that may contribute to body weight gain and development of obesity. However, previous studies of this relationship have been limited, with inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study among 19 220 US women aged 38.9 years or older who were free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes mellitus and had a baseline body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) within the normal range of 18.5 to less than 25. Alcoholic beverage consumption was reported on a baseline questionnaire. Body weight was self-reported on baseline and 8 annual follow-up questionnaires. RESULTS: There was an inverse association between amount of alcohol consumed at baseline and weight gained during 12.9 years of follow-up. A total of 7942 (41.3%) initially normal-weight women became overweight or obese (BMI > or =25) and 732 (3.8%) became obese (BMI > or =30). After adjusting for age, baseline BMI, smoking status, nonalcohol energy intake, physical activity level, and other lifestyle and dietary factors, the relative risks of becoming overweight or obese across total alcohol intake of 0, more than 0 to less than 5, 5 to less than 15, 15 to less than 30, and 30 g/d or more were 1.00, 0.96, 0.86, 0.70, and 0.73, respectively (P( )for trend( )<.001). The corresponding relative risks of becoming obese were 1.00, 0.75, 0.43, 0.39, and 0.29 (P( )for trend( )<.001). The associations were similar by subgroups of age, smoking status, physical activity level, and baseline BMI. CONCLUSION: Compared with nondrinkers, initially normal-weight women who consumed a light to moderate amount of alcohol gained less weight and had a lower risk of becoming overweight and/or obese during 12.9 years of follow-up.




06 May 2014 In General Health




OBJECTIVE: To determine whether alcohol consumption is associated with incident overweight or obesity in normal-weight, postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study considering baseline alcohol consumption and subsequent weight change over 7 years. SUBJECTS: 15,920 normal-weight (body mass index (BMI): 18.5 to /= 30 kg m(-2)) over 7 years. RESULTS: One-third of the 13,822 women included in the analytical cohort reported no alcohol consumption. BMI differed little between abstainers (22.8+/-1.58 kg m(-2)) and alcohol consumers in the upper quintile (22.7+/-1.53 kg m(-2)). Among normal-weight women, the risk of becoming overweight or obese over a 7-year follow-up period was 35% or 88% lower, respectively, for women in the upper quintile of alcohol intake relative to abstainers (hazard ratio (HR), 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.58-0.73; or HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.05-0.25, respectively). Risk for overweight and obesity was not significantly modified by age. Wine consumption showed the greatest protective association for risk of overweight (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68-0.84), followed by liquor (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.93) and beer (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-1.00). CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal women of normal weight who report moderate alcohol intake have a reduced risk of becoming overweight or obese over time. Perhaps, weight control measures in this population should target behaviors other than reduction in alcohol for those of normal BMI consuming moderate amounts.




OBJECTIVES: Maternal alcohol use is a leading preventable cause of neurobehavioral and developmental abnormalities in children. This study examines the patterns and average volume of alcohol use among U.S. women of childbearing age in order to identify subgroups of high-risk women for selective intervention.

METHODS: A sample of 188,290 women aged 18-44 years participated in the Centers for Disease Controls and Prevention (CDC)'s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey during the period of 2001-2003. Reported alcohol use patterns and average volume were examined for pregnant and nonpregnant women. Efforts were made to evaluate and characterize women who practiced various levels of binge drinking.

RESULTS: The results showed that approximately 2% of pregnant women and 13% of nonpregnant women in the United States engaged in binge drinking during the period of 2001-2003. Among the estimated average of 6.7 million women of childbearing age overall who engaged in binge drinking during the period, approximately 28.5% women also reported consuming an average of 5 drinks or more on typical drinking days, or about 21.4% women consumed at least 45 drinks on average in a month. Larger proportions of binge drinkers with high usual quantity of consumption were found among women of younger ages (18-24 years) or current smokers.

CONCLUSIONS: Future prevention efforts should include strategies that combine health messages and encourage women of childbearing age, with particular emphasis on women 18-24 years, to avoid alcohol and tobacco use, and take multivitamins and folic acid daily for better pregnancy outcomes. Other efforts must also include broad-based implementation of screening and brief intervention for alcohol misuse in primary and women's health care settings.

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