05 June 2020 In Drinking Patterns

BACKGROUND: Binge drinking causes injury and illness. Prevalence of binge drinking doubled in 2006-2018 for women in middle adulthood (ages 30 s and 40 s); these are the first cohorts for whom attaining higher education and income (both associated with increased alcohol use) are highly prevalent. It is unknown whether recent trends in binge drinking among US women aged 30-49 differ by socio-economic status (SES).

METHODS: We examined trends in binge drinking using nationally-representative National Health Interview Surveys (2006-2018) for women age 30-49 (N = 63,426), by education (college) and family income (400 % of poverty line), controlling for age and race.

RESULTS: The odds of binge drinking increased among all women approximately 7 % annually from 2006 to 2018. The magnitude of the change increased with education; the predicted probability of binge drinking among women at lowest levels of education increased from 10 % to 13 % from 2006 to 2018 (adjusted OR [AOR] 1.02, 95 % CI 0.99, 1.04), and those with the highest education from 13%-32% (AOR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.08-1.12). Women at the lowest income increased binge drinking from 12 % to 16 % (AOR 1.03, 95 % CI 1.01-1.05) and highest income from 17 % to 36 % (AOR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.07-1.10). Interactions between education (F855(4), p < 0.001) and income (F857(3), p < 0.001) with time confirmed slope differences.

CONCLUSIONS: Nationally, women at all levels of SES increased binge drinking, but increases were most pronounced among high SES women.

21 September 2016 In Cancer

Alcohol intake has been related to an increased risk of breast cancer (BC) while dietary fiber intake has been inversely associated to BC risk. A beneficial effect of fibers on ethanol carcinogenesis through their impact on estrogen levels is still controversial. We investigated the role of dietary fiber as a modifying factor of the association of alcohol and breast cancer using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This study included 334,850 women aged 35-70 years at baseline enrolled in the ten countries of the EPIC study and followed up for 11.0 years on average. Information on fiber and alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were calculated from country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) of developing invasive breast cancer according to different levels of alcohol and fiber intake were computed. During 3,670,439 person-years, 11,576 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. For subjects with low intake of fiber (<18.5 g/day), the risk of BC per 10g/day of alcohol intake was 1.06 (1.03-1.08) while among subjects with high intake of fiber (>24.2 g/day) the risk of BC was 1.02 (0.99-1.05) (test for interaction p=0.011). This modulating effect was stronger for fiber from vegetables. Our results suggest that fiber intake may modulate the positive association of alcohol intake and BC.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

02 August 2016 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer even at moderate levels of intake. However, the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality among breast cancer patients is less clear.

METHODS: This study included women from the Women's Health Initiative observational study and randomized trial diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 7,835). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall and breast cancer-specific (BCS) mortality associated with drinking alcohol before or after a breast cancer diagnosis. We also assessed whether changes in drinking habits after diagnosis are related to mortality.

RESULTS: Women who were consuming alcohol prior to their breast cancer diagnosis had a nonstatistically significant 24% (95% CI, 0.56-1.04) reduced risk of BCS mortality and a 26% (95% CI, 0.61-0.89) reduced risk of all-cause mortality. Some variation was observed by estrogen receptor (ER) status as alcohol consumption was associated with a 49% (95% CI, 0.31-0.83) reduced risk of BCS mortality among ER- patients with no change in risk observed among ER+ patients (HR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.31-1.54), though the difference between these risks was not statistically significant (P for interaction = 0.39). Postdiagnosis alcohol consumption, and change in consumption patterns after diagnosis, did not appear to be associated with all-cause or BCS mortality.

CONCLUSION: In this large study, consumption of alcohol before or after breast cancer diagnosis did not increase risks of overall or cause-specific mortality.

IMPACT: Coupled with existing evidence, alcohol consumption is unlikely to have a substantial impact on mortality among breast cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 1-6. (c)2016 AACR.

27 January 2016 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption contributes to many negative health consequences and is a risk factor for death. Some previous studies however suggest a J-shaped relationship between the level of alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality. These findings have in part been suggested to be due to confounders. The aim of our study was to analyze the relationship between self-reported alcohol intake and all-cause mortality in women, adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle factors and diseases such as diabetes and previous ischemic heart disease.

METHODS: All women aged 50-59 years (born between 1935 and 1945) that lived in any of the five municipalities in southern Sweden were invited to participate in a health survey. From December 1995 to February 2000 a total of 6916 women (out of 10,766, the total population of women in 1995) underwent a physical examination and answered a questionnaire. We followed the women from the day of screening until death, or if no event occurred until May 31st 2015. Mortality was ascertained through the national cause-of-death register.

RESULTS: In this study a total of 6353 women were included. Alcohol consumption showed a J-formed relationship with mortality, when adjusted for education, marital status, smoking, BMI, physical fitness, diabetes and ischemic heart disease before screening. Non consumption of alcohol was associated with increased mortality as well as higher levels of consumption, from 12 grams per day and upwards.

CONCLUSIONS: There was a clear J-shaped relation between the amount of alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality even after controlling for sociodemography, lifestyle factors and diseases such as diabetes and previous ischemic heart disease. The observed protective effect of light drinking (1-12 grams/day) could thus not be attributed to any of these known confounders.

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