21 April 2021 In General Health

PURPOSE: To examine the association of alcohol consumption and type of alcoholic beverage with incident cataract surgery in 2 large cohorts.

DESIGN: Longitudinal, observational study.

PARTICIPANTS: We included 469 387 participants of UK Biobank with a mean age of 56 years and 23 162 participants of European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk with a mean age of 59 years.

METHODS: Self-reported alcohol consumption at baseline was ascertained by a touchscreen questionnaire in UK Biobank and a food-frequency questionnaire in EPIC-Norfolk. Cases were defined as participants undergoing cataract surgery in either eye as ascertained via data linkage to National Health Service procedure statistics. We excluded participants with cataract surgery up to 1 year after the baseline assessment visit or those with self-reported cataract at baseline. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of alcohol consumption with incident cataract surgery, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, Townsend deprivation index, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and diabetes status.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident cataract surgery.

RESULTS: There were 19 011 (mean cohort follow-up of 95 months) and 4573 (mean cohort follow-up of 193 months) incident cases of cataract surgery in UK Biobank and EPIC-Norfolk, respectively. Compared with nondrinkers, drinkers were less likely to undergo cataract surgery in UK Biobank (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-0.93) and EPIC-Norfolk (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97) after adjusting for covariables. Among alcohol consumers, greater alcohol consumption was associated with a reduced risk of undergoing cataract surgery in EPIC-Norfolk (P < 0.001), whereas a U-shaped association was observed in the UK Biobank. Compared with nondrinkers, subgroup analysis by type of alcohol beverage showed the strongest protective association with wine consumption; the risk of incident cataract surgery was 23% and 14% lower among those in the highest category of wine consumption in EPIC-Norfolk and UK Biobank, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a lower risk of undergoing cataract surgery with low to moderate alcohol consumption. The association was particularly apparent with wine consumption. We cannot exclude the possibility of residual confounding, and further studies are required to determine whether this association is causal in nature.

23 November 2020 In Dementia

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to the most common form of dementia in elderly people. Modifiable dietary and lifestyle factors could either accelerate or ameliorate the aging process and the risk of developing AD and other age-related morbidities. Emerging evidence also reports a potential link between oral and gut microbiota alterations and AD.

Dietary polyphenols, in particular wine polyphenols, are a major diver of oral and gut microbiota composition and function. Consequently, wine polyphenols health effects, mediated as a function of the individual's oral and gut microbiome are considered one of the recent greatest challenges in the field of neurodegenerative diseases as a promising strategy to prevent or slow down AD progression.

This review highlights current knowledge on the link of oral and intestinal microbiome and the interaction between wine polyphenols and microbiota in the context of AD. Furthermore, the extent to which mechanisms bacteria and polyphenols and its microbial metabolites exert their action on communication pathways between the brain and the microbiota, as well as the impact of the molecular mediators to these interactions on AD patients, are described.

23 November 2020 In Cardiovascular System

Although, three decades have pasted from the introduction of "French Paradox", is still an issue for debate. Epidemiology supports the J-shaped relationship between wine consumption and vascular events as well as cardiovascular mortality with a maximum protection at 21 g of alcohol consumption in the form of wine per day.

Nevertheless, the aforementioned studies have used an observational design that raises concerns about potential confounding. Randomized clinical studies may provide data to end the controversy and in parallel with in vitro experiments to elucidate the mechanisms by which wine affects cardiovascular disease.

In this concept, this review aims to address the presence of bioactive wine micro constituents, their potential mechanisms of action and also to summarize the cardio-protective effects of wine intake based on clinical trials. The role of wine micro-constituents in inflammation and haemostasis is discussed in detail.

13 October 2020 In General Health
Five different wines (standard Grasevina, macerated Grasevina with and without sulfur, rose, and standard Plavac Mali), all typical Croatian wines, were tested to determine the antimicrobial activity against two Escherichia coli bacterial strains (ATCC((R)) 25922 and ATCC((R)) 8739) in vitro and using sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets as food matrix. The chemical composition of wines (pH, acidity, alcohol, total phenolics, anthocyanins, tannins, and sulfur content) and antimicrobial activity (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), agar-well diffusion method) were determined. The total phenolic content of the wines ranged from 305-3210 mg gallic acid equivalents per liter (GAE/L), and did not correlate to antimicrobial activity. The two wines with the lowest phenolic content (standard Grasevina and rose) had the lowest MIC values (122 and 429 mg GAE/L). A specific relation between the winemaking process and a particular MIC value was not established. There was also no relation found between the pH value, ethanol content, sulfur, or phenolics in regards to the antimicrobial effect. In fish fillets marinated in wine + water mixture (v/v = 1:1) and inoculated with 7 log colony forming units (CFU)/25 g the growth of bacteria was reduced after three days of storage at 4 degrees C. Subsequent storage resulted in the growth of bacteria in all samples, with the lowest growth of E. coli ATCC((R)) 25922 in macerated Grasevina and E. coli ATCC((R)) 8739 in standard Grasevina. All wines showed the capacity to reduce the number and growth of heavily infected sea bass filets, but correlation with specific wine constituents was not found. Taking into account the numerous reactive mechanisms between food and wine, all in vitro studies in controlled laboratory conditions should be further verified in the relevant environment, and additional research is needed to clarify the role of individual wine components in the mechanism of antimicrobial activity.
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