15 June 2022 In Dementia

BACKGROUND: Low-to-moderate alcohol consumption appears to have potential health benefits. Existing evidence concludes that wine may be associated with a lower incidence of certain diseases. This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to examine evidence on the association between wine consumption and cognitive decline and to analyze whether this association varies depending on the wine consumption level or is affected by individual and study characteristics, including mean age, percentage of women participants, and follow-up time.

METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we undertook a search in MEDLINE (via PubMed), Scopus, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases for longitudinal studies measuring the association between wine consumption and cognitive decline from their inception to May 2021. Effect sizes were calculated using the DerSimonian and Laird and Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman methods.

RESULTS: The search retrieved 6,055 articles, 16 of which were included in this systematic review. In total, 12 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The studies were published between 1997 and 2019. They were conducted in nine different countries. The sample size of the included studies ranged from 360 to 10,308 with a mean age of 70 years old. Using the DerSimoniand and Laird method, the pooled RR for the effect of wine consumption on cognitive decline was 0.72 (95% CI 0.63-0.80; I (2) = 82.4%; tau(2): 0.0154). Using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method, the RR was 0.65 (95% CI 0.52-0.79; I (2) = 94,531%; tau(2): 0.057).

CONCLUSIONS: This study may show a protective effect of wine consumption against cognitive decline. However, it would be important for future research to differentiate the types of wine within consumption.

15 June 2022 In Cardiovascular System

Evidence from research studies reports that wine consumption is associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk, partly through the amelioration of oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of regular light to moderate wine consumption from coronary heart disease (CHD) patients compared to the effect induced by alcohol intake without the presence of wine microconstituents, on oxidation-induced macromolecular damage as well as on endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity. A randomized, single-blind, controlled, three-arm parallel intervention was carried out, in which 64 CHD patients were allocated to three intervention groups. Group A consumed no alcohol, and Group B (wine) and Group C (ethanol) consumed 27 g of alcohol/day for 8 weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks. Urine oxidized guanine species levels, protein carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) levels, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, were measured. Oxidized guanine species and protein carbonyl levels were significantly increased in the ethanol group during the intervention and were significantly decreased in the wine group. These results support the idea that wine's bioactive compounds may exert antioxidant actions that counteract the macromolecular oxidative damage induced by alcohol in CHD patients.

28 April 2022 In General Health

Data are conflicting about the effects of alcohol intake on kidney function. This population-based study investigated associations of alcohol intake with kidney function and mortality. The study cohort included adult participants in Exam-1, Exam-2 (6-year follow-up), and Exam-3 (20-year follow-up) of the Gubbio study.

Kidney function was evaluated as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, CKD-Epi equation, mL/min x 1.73 m(2)). Daily habitual alcohol intake was assessed by questionnaires. Wine intake accounted for >94% of total alcohol intake at all exams. Alcohol intake significantly tracked over time (R > 0.66, p < 0.001). Alcohol intake distribution was skewed at all exams (skewness > 2) and was divided into four strata for analyses (g/day = 0, 1-24, 25-48, and >48). Strata of alcohol intake differed substantially for lab markers of alcohol intake (p < 0.001).

In multivariable regression, strata of alcohol intake related cross-sectionally to eGFR at all exams (Exam-1: B = 1.70, p < 0.001; Exam-2: B = 1.03, p < 0.001; Exam-3: B = 0.55, p = 0.010) and related longitudinally to less negative eGFR change from Exam-1 to Exam-2 (B = 0.133, p = 0.002) and from Exam-2 to Exam-3 (B = 0.065, p = 0.004). In multivariable Cox models, compared to no intake, intakes > 24 g/day were not associated with different mortality while an intake of 1-24 g/day was associated with lower mortality in the whole cohort (HR = 0.77, p = 0.003) and in the subgroup with eGFR < 60 mL/min x 1.73 m(2) (HR = 0.69, p = 0.033). These data indicate a positive independent association of alcohol intake with kidney function not due to a mortality-related selection.

28 April 2022 In Drinking Patterns

The present study examines how alcohol intake from wine and non-wine alcoholic beverages (non-wine) in g/d, as well as cups of coffee and tea included as continuous covariates and mutually adjusted are associated with all-cause, cancer, non-cancer and CVD mortality. Consumption was assessed in 354 386 participants of the UK Biobank cohort who drank alcohol at least occasionally and survived at least 2 years after baseline with 20 201 deaths occurring over 4.2 million person-years. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality were assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression models and beverage intake fitted as penalised cubic splines.

A significant U-shaped association was detected between wine consumption and all-cause, non-cancer and CVD mortality. Wine consumption with lowest risk of death (nadir) ranged from 19 to 23 g alcohol/d in all participants and both sexes separately. In contrast, non-wine intake was significantly and positively associated in a dose-dependent manner with all mortality types studied except for CVD in females and with the nadir between 0 and 12 g alcohol/d.

In all participants, the nadir for all-cause mortality was 2 cups coffee/d with non-coffee drinkers showing a slightly increased risk of death. Tea consumption was significantly and negatively associated with all mortality types in both sexes. Taken together, light to moderate consumption of wine but not non-wine is associated with decreased all-cause and non-cancer mortality. A minor negative association of coffee consumption with mortality cannot be excluded whereas tea intake is associated with a consistently decreased risk of all mortality types studied.

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