23 November 2022 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced hangover represents a significant, yet understudied, global hazard and a large socio-economic burden.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydrogen (H2) on relieving drinking and hangover symptoms in 20 healthy volunteers. METHODS: In this pilot, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, matched, crossover interventional trial, participants were matched into pairs and randomly assigned. Study group 1 inhaled placebo air for 1 hr, followed by drinking 100 ml of liquor (40% alcohol) within 10 min, and then pure water. Study group 2 inhaled a mixture of H2 and O2 gas for 1 hr, followed by drinking 100 ml of liquor within 10 min, and then H2 dissolved in water. On a second intervention day (crossover) >/=1 wk later, study-group subjects were switched to the opposite order. Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), hangover severity, and cognitive scores were measured.

RESULTS: The BrACs within the H2 group were significantly lower than those within the placebo group after 30 min, 60 min, and 90 min (P < 0.05). The H2 group reported having fewer hangover symptoms compared with the placebo group (Placebo: 77% of symptoms absent, 19.7% of mild symptoms, 2.7% of moderate symptoms, 0.7% of severe symptoms; H2: 88.6% of symptoms absent, 10% of mild symptoms, 1.3% of moderate symptoms, 0% of severe symptoms; P < 0.001). H2 treatment improved cognitive testing scores (P < 0.05), including attention and executive functions. Furthermore, consumption of H2 was negatively (beta = -13.016; 95% CI: -17.726, -8.305; P < 0.001) and female sex was positively (beta = 22.611; 95% CI: 16.226, 28.997; P < 0.001) correlated with increased BrACs. Likewise, the consumption of H2 was negatively (OR: 0.035; 95% CI: 0.007, 0.168; P < 0.001) while female sex was positively (OR: 28.838; 95% CI: 5.961, 139.506; P < 0.001) correlated with the severity of hangover symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: H2 decreases BrACs and relieves the symptoms of hangovers.This trial was registered at China Clinical Trial Registry as ChiCTR2200059988. URL of registration: http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=58359.

23 November 2022 In General Health

This review summarises the evidence on the impact of serving and container size on how much people drink, interventions that have the potential to reduce alcohol consumption across populations, thereby improving health. A rapid search identified 10 published reports of 15 studies and 1 review. Four studies focused on serving size, eight studies and the review on glass size, two studies on bottle size and one on both glass and bottle size. Twelve studies and the review focused on wine, one study on beer and two on both. All were conducted in England, by just two research groups. Removing the largest serving size of wine decreased wine sales by 7.6% (95% CI -12.3%, -2.9%) in a study in 21 licenced premises, reflecting findings from two prior studies in semi-naturalistic settings. Adding a serving size for beer that was a size smaller than the largest was assessed in one study in 13 licenced premises, with no evident effect. Reducing the size of wine glasses in restaurants decreased wine sales by 7.3% (95% CI -13.5%, -1.5%) in a mega-analysis of eight datasets from studies in five licensed premises. Using smaller wine glasses at home may also reduce consumption, but the evidence from just one study is less certain. No studies have assessed the impact of glass size for drinking beer. The effect of bottles smaller than the standard 750 mL on wine consumed at home was assessed in two studies: 500 mL bottles reduced consumption by 4.5% (95% CI -7.9%, -1.0%) in one study, but in another, using 375 mL bottles there was no evident effect. No studies assessed the impact of bottle or other container size for drinking beer. Reducing the size of servings, glasses and bottles could reduce wine consumption across populations. The impact of similar interventions for reducing consumption of other alcoholic drinks awaits evaluation. Further studies are also warranted to assess the generalisability of existing evidence.

23 November 2022 In General Health

Drinking alcoholic beverages is associated with various health effects in the population. Generally speaking, the evidence from epidemiological studies suggest that moderate alcohol intake is associated with a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction; the risk of cancer, on the other hand, tends to rise; whether an increase in the incidence of cancer is observed also in association with moderate consumption levels is yet not definitively ascertained. All these effects seem primarily to be associated with the amount of alcohol consumed; the role of the different alcoholic beverages, and of their minor components, in this regard is in fact not clearly defined. Due to the opposite direction of the association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular and cancer events, the association with all-cause mortality is complex, and J-shaped, with a consumption window theoretically associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality, up to 25 g alcohol per day. However, this issue is the subject of intense scientific debate.

23 November 2022 In General Health

Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and is interrelated to stroke, heart attack, and heart failure. The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has been closely associated with reduced CVD morbidity and mortality, but research is not well explored for this relationship in individuals with diabetes (who experience greater CVD morbidity and mortality than individuals without diabetes). The aim of this review was to explore the literature related to the MedDiet and atherosclerosis and associated risk factors in individuals with and without diabetes. In total, 570 articles were identified, and 36 articles were included. The articles were published between 2011 and 2021. Platforms used for the search were PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and ProQuest. Our literature search included clinical and observational studies. Clinical studies revealed the MedDiet was associated with improved biomarkers, plaque, and anthropometric measurements that are associated with atherosclerosis and CVD. Observational studies identified associations between the MedDiet and lower presence of atherosclerosis, improved vascular aging, and increased endothelial progenitor cells. However, most of the studies took place in Mediterranean countries. Further research is needed to better understand the long-term effects the MedDiet on atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors in diverse populations to include individuals with and without diabetes.

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