15 June 2022 In Drinking Patterns

This review discusses the inconsistent recommendations on alcohol consumption and its association with chronic disease, highlighting the need for an evidence-based consensus. Alcohol is an addictive substance consumed worldwide, especially in European countries. Recommendations on alcohol consumption are controversial. On one hand, many nonrandomized studies defend that moderate consumption has a beneficial cardiovascular effect or a lower risk of all-cause mortality. On the other hand, alcohol is associated with an increased risk of cancer, neurological diseases, or injuries, among others. For years, efforts have been made to answer the question regarding the safe amount of alcohol intake, but controversies remain. Observational studies advocate moderate alcohol consumption following a Mediterranean pattern (red wine with meals avoiding binge drinking) as the best option for current drinkers. However, agencies such as the IARC recommend abstention from alcohol as it is a potent carcinogen. In this context, more randomized trial with larger sample size and hard clinical endpoints should be conducted to clarify the available evidence and provide clinicians with support for their clinical practice.

28 April 2022 In Drinking Patterns

The present study examines how alcohol intake from wine and non-wine alcoholic beverages (non-wine) in g/d, as well as cups of coffee and tea included as continuous covariates and mutually adjusted are associated with all-cause, cancer, non-cancer and CVD mortality. Consumption was assessed in 354 386 participants of the UK Biobank cohort who drank alcohol at least occasionally and survived at least 2 years after baseline with 20 201 deaths occurring over 4.2 million person-years. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality were assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression models and beverage intake fitted as penalised cubic splines.

A significant U-shaped association was detected between wine consumption and all-cause, non-cancer and CVD mortality. Wine consumption with lowest risk of death (nadir) ranged from 19 to 23 g alcohol/d in all participants and both sexes separately. In contrast, non-wine intake was significantly and positively associated in a dose-dependent manner with all mortality types studied except for CVD in females and with the nadir between 0 and 12 g alcohol/d.

In all participants, the nadir for all-cause mortality was 2 cups coffee/d with non-coffee drinkers showing a slightly increased risk of death. Tea consumption was significantly and negatively associated with all mortality types in both sexes. Taken together, light to moderate consumption of wine but not non-wine is associated with decreased all-cause and non-cancer mortality. A minor negative association of coffee consumption with mortality cannot be excluded whereas tea intake is associated with a consistently decreased risk of all mortality types studied.

22 March 2022 In Drinking Patterns

The present study examines how alcohol intake from wine and non-wine alcoholic beverages (non-wine) in g/d, as well as cups of coffee and tea included as continuous covariates and mutually adjusted are associated with all-cause, cancer, non-cancer and CVD mortality. Consumption was assessed in 354 386 participants of the UK Biobank cohort who drank alcohol at least occasionally and survived at least 2 years after baseline with 20 201 deaths occurring over 4.2 million person-years.

Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality were assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression models and beverage intake fitted as penalised cubic splines. A significant U-shaped association was detected between wine consumption and all-cause, non-cancer and CVD mortality. Wine consumption with lowest risk of death (nadir) ranged from 19 to 23 g alcohol/d in all participants and both sexes separately. In contrast, non-wine intake was significantly and positively associated in a dose-dependent manner with all mortality types studied except for CVD in females and with the nadir between 0 and 12 g alcohol/d.

In all participants, the nadir for all-cause mortality was 2 cups coffee/d with non-coffee drinkers showing a slightly increased risk of death. Tea consumption was significantly and negatively associated with all mortality types in both sexes. Taken together, light to moderate consumption of wine but not non-wine is associated with decreased all-cause and non-cancer mortality. A minor negative association of coffee consumption with mortality cannot be excluded whereas tea intake is associated with a consistently decreased risk of all mortality types studied.

22 March 2022 In Drinking Patterns

BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with poor diet. Mixed reports in literature, so far, emphasize on the detailed understanding of relationships between diet composition and binge drinking at different drinking thresholds.

OBJECTIVE: We examined the association of alcohol consumption thresholds with macronutrient composition, caloric intake and anthropometric measures from the NHANES 2017-2018 dataset.

METHODS: A total of 2320 participants' data were analyzed. Energy and nutrient content from daily food and beverage intake were assessed via two dietary recall interviews. Physical examination and Alcohol Use Questionnaire including details about lifetime and current usage patterns were obtained. Correlations were evaluated using the Rao-Scott F Adjusted Chi-square statistic and Wald F-test. Sample-weighted multiple linear regression models were built to analyze the associations among volume of alcohol consumed, weight history and macronutrient intake.

RESULTS: Waist circumference was significantly higher in 0- < 4 drinks/episode (low-quantity) drinkers than 4-7 drinks/episode (medium-quantity) and 8-11 drinks/episode (high-quantity) drinkers. High-quantity drinkers consumed significantly more kilocalories (2569.91) compared with low-quantity drinkers (2106.73). Low-quantity drinkers consumed more energy from carbohydrate and fat than medium and high-quantity drinkers. Very high-quantity drinkers (12+ drinks/episode) consumed less fiber (12.81 g) than low-quantity drinkers (16.67 g).

CONCLUSIONS: We observed an association between high alcohol intake and differences in eating habits and body composition. The findings suggest a need to compare more specific drinking patterns and their impact on nutrient intake. Although some results conflicted with previous studies, the mechanisms underlying alcohol's effect on ingestive and digestive metabolic pathways are still unclear and require further investigation.

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