21 July 2021 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have a complex relation.

OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between alcohol consumption, fasting plasma proteins, and CVD risk.

METHODS: We performed cross-sectional association analyses of alcohol consumption with 71 CVD-related plasma proteins, and also performed prospective association analyses of alcohol consumption and protein concentrations with 3 CVD risk factors (obesity, hypertension, and diabetes) in 6745 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants (mean age 49 y; 53% women).

RESULTS: A unit increase in log10 transformed alcohol consumption (g/d) was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.26; P = 0.007), and decreased risks of obesity (HR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.91; P = 4.6 x 10-4) and diabetes (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.80; P = 5.1 x 10-6) in a median of 13-y (interquartile = 7, 14) of follow-up. We identified 43 alcohol-associated proteins in a discovery sample (n = 4348, false discovery rate <0.05) and 20 of them were significant (P <0.05/43) in an independent validation sample (n = 2397). Eighteen of the 20 proteins were inversely associated with alcohol consumption. Four of the 20 proteins demonstrated 3-way associations, as expected, with alcohol consumption and CVD risk factors. For example, a greater concentration of APOA1 was associated with higher alcohol consumption (P = 1.2 x 10-65), and it was also associated with a lower risk of diabetes (P = 8.5 x 10-6). However, several others showed unexpected 3-way associations.

CONCLUSIONS: We identified 20 alcohol-associated proteins in 6745 FHS samples. These alcohol-associated proteins demonstrated complex relations with the 3 CVD risk factors. Future studies with integration of more proteomic markers and larger sample size are warranted to unravel the complex relation between alcohol consumption and CVD risk.

26 May 2021 In Cardiovascular System
In the past few decades, research has focused on the importance of addressing modifiable risk factors as a means of lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which represents the worldwide leading cause of death. For quite a long time, it has been considered that ethanol intake has a biphasic impact on the cardiovascular system, mainly depending on the drinking pattern, amount of consumption, and type of alcoholic beverage. Multiple case-control studies and meta-analyses reported the existence of a "U-type" or "J-shaped" relationship between alcohol and CVD, as well as mortality, indicating that low to moderate alcohol consumption decreases the number of adverse cardiovascular events and deaths compared to abstinence, while excessive alcohol use has unquestionably deleterious effects on the circulatory system. However, beginning in the early 2000s, the cardioprotective effects of low doses of alcohol were abnegated by the results of large epidemiological studies. Therefore, this narrative review aims to reiterate the association of alcohol use with cardiac arrhythmias, dilated cardiomyopathy, arterial hypertension, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, highlighting literature disagreements over the risk and benefits of low to moderate drinking on the cardiovascular system.
26 May 2021 In Cardiovascular System
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of alcohol misuse among older adults has grown dramatically in the past decade, yet little is known about the association of alcohol misuse with hospitalization and death in this patient population. METHODS: We examined the association between alcohol use (measured by a screening instrument in primary care) and rates of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related 6-month hospitalization or death via electronic health records (EHRs) in a nationally representative sample of older, high-risk Veterans. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, including frailty and comorbid conditions. RESULTS: The all-cause hospitalization or death rate at 6 months was 14.9%, and the CVD-related hospitalization or death rate was 1.8%. In adjusted analyses, all-cause hospitalization or death was higher in older Veterans who were nondrinkers or harmful use drinkers compared to moderate use drinkers, but CVD-related hospitalization or death was similar in all categories of drinking. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the complex association between alcohol and all-cause acute healthcare utilization found in the broader population is similar in older, high-risk Veteran patients. These findings do not support an association between alcohol consumption and CVD-specific hospitalizations.
21 April 2021 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Studies regarding whether light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have generated mixed results. Further, few studies have examined the potential impact of alcohol consumption on diverse disease outcomes simultaneously. We aimed to prospectively study the dose-response association between alcohol consumption and risk of CVD, cancer, and mortality.

METHODS: This study included 83,732 adult Chinese participants, free of CVD and cancer at baseline. Participants were categorized into 6 groups based on self-report alcohol consumption: 0, 1-25, 26-150, 151-350, 351-750, and > 750 g alcohol/wk. Incident cases of CVD, cancers, and mortality were confirmed by medical records. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the composite risk of these three outcomes, and each individual outcome, were calculated using Cox proportional hazard model.

RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10.0 years, there were 6411 incident cases of CVD, 2947 cancers and 6646 deaths. We observed a J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and risk of CVD, cancer, and mortality, with the lowest risk at 25 g/wk., which is equivalent to ~ 2 servings/wk. Compared to consuming 1-25 g/wk., the adjusted HR for composite outcomes was 1.38 (95% confidence interval (CI):1.29-1.49) for non-drinker, 1.15 (95% CI: 1.04-1.27) for 26-150 g/wk., 1.22 (95% CI: 1.10-1.34) for 151-350 g/wk., 1.33 (95% CI: 1.21-1.46) for 351-750 g/wk., and 1.57 (95% CI: 1.30-1.90) for > 750 g/wk., after adjusting for age, sex, lifestyle, social economic status, and medication use.

CONCLUSIONS: Light alcohol consumption at ~ 25 g/wk was associated with lower risk of CVD, cancer, and mortality than none or higher consumption in Chinese adults.

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