23 February 2022 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies confirmed that moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a reduced risk of adverse cardiovascular events. It is increasingly recognized that the composition of gut microbiota and metabolites is involved in modulating the cardiovascular health of the host. However, the association of moderate alcohol consumption with serum metabolites and gut microbiome and its impact on coronary artery disease (CAD) is not fully investigated.

METHOD: Serum untargeted metabolomics analysis and fecal 16S rRNA sequencing were performed on 72 male patients with CAD having various alcohol consumption (36 non-drinkers, 18 moderate drinkers, and 18 heavy drinkers) and 17 matched healthy controls. MetaboAnalyst and PICRUSt2 were utilized to analyze the possible involved metabolic pathways. Multi-omics analysis was achieved by Spearman correlation to reveal the interactions of alcohol consumption with gut microbiome and serum metabolites in patients with CAD.

RESULTS: We noted distinct differences between patients with CAD, with varying levels of alcohol consumption and healthy controls in aspects of serum metabolome and the gut microbiome. Moderate alcohol consumption significantly changed the lipidomic profiles, including reductions of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids in moderate drinkers with CAD when compared with non and heavy drinkers with CAD. Moreover, we also found the reduction of microbial-derived metabolites in moderate drinkers with CAD, such as 2-phenylacetamide and mevalonic acid. To be noted, the gut microbiota of moderate drinkers with CAD tended to resemble that of healthy controls. Compared with non-drinkers, the relative abundance of genus Paraprevotella, Lysinibacillus was significantly elevated in moderate drinkers with CAD, while the genus Bifidobacterium, Megasphaera, and Streptococcus were significantly reduced in moderate drinkers with CAD. Multi-omics analysis revealed that specific metabolites and microbes associated with moderate alcohol consumption were correlated with the severity of CAD.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that the impact of moderate alcohol consumption on serum metabolites and gut microbiota in patients with CAD seemed to be separated from that of heavy and non-alcohol consumption. Moderate drinking tended to have more positive effects on metabolic profiles and commensal flora, which may explain its beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. Overall, our study provides a novel insight into the effects of moderate alcohol consumption in patients with CAD.

26 January 2022 In Cardiovascular System

The consumption of food for pleasure is mainly associated with adverse health effects. This review was carried out to verify recent reports on the impact of chocolate and wine consumption on cardiovascular health, with a particular focus on atherosclerosis. On one side, these products have proven adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, but on the other hand, if consumed in optimal amounts, they have cardiovascular benefits.

The submitted data suggest that the beneficial doses are 30-50 g and 130/250 mL for chocolate and wine, respectively, for women and men. The accumulated evidence indicates that the active ingredients in the products under consideration in this review are phenolic compounds, characterized by anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiplatelet properties. However, there are also some reports of cardioprotective properties of other compounds such as esters, amines, biogenic amines, amino acids, fatty acids, mineral ingredients, and vitamins.

Our narrative review has shown that in meta-analyses of intervention studies, consumption of chocolate and wine was positively associated with the beneficial outcomes associated with the cardiovascular system. In contrast, the assessment with the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) scale did not confirm this phenomenon.

In addition, mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds present in chocolate and wine depend on some factors, such as age, sex, body weight, and the presence of additional medical conditions. Patients using cardiovascular drugs simultaneously with both products should be alert to the risk of pharmacologically relevant interactions during their use.

Our narrative review leads to the conclusion that there is abundant evidence to prove the beneficial impact of consuming both products on cardiovascular health, however some evidence still remains controversial. Many authors of studies included in this review postulated that well-designed, longitudinal studies should be performed to determine the effects of these products and their components on atherosclerosis and other CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) disease.

26 January 2022 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND & AIMS: To investigate potential biases that exist in available epidemiological evidence resulting in negative associations or underestimation of cardiovascular (CV) risk associated with alcohol consumption.

METHODS: UK Biobank involved baseline data collection from 22 assessment centres across the United Kingdom. The cohort consisted of 333 259 alcohol consumers and 21 710 never drinkers. Participants were followed up for a median 6.9 years capturing incident fatal and non-fatal CV events, ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Alcohol intake was reported as grams/week.

RESULTS: Using never drinkers as reference, alcohol from all drink types combined (hazard ratios ranging between 0.61 and 0.74), beer/cider (0.70-0.80) and spirits combined, and all wines combined (0.66-0.77) associated with a reduced risk for all outcome measures (all CV events, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease). In continuous analysis, alcohol captured from all drink types combined (hazard ratio, 1.08, 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.14), and beer/cider and spirits combined (1.24, 1.17-1.31) associated with an increased risk for overall CV events, however hazard ratios were stronger for beer/cider and spirits (P < 0.0001). Wine associated with a reduced risk for overall CV events (0.92, 0.86-0.98) and ischemic heart disease (0.75, 0.67-0.84). This negative relationship with overall CV events was lost after excluding ischemic heart disease events (1.00, 0.93-1.08), while the positive association of alcohol captured from beer/cider and spirits remained significant (1.30, 1.22-1.40). This positive association with overall CV events was present even when consuming less than 14 units per week.

CONCLUSIONS: Avoiding potential biases prevents underestimation of cardiovascular risk and indicates that consuming up to 14 units per week also associated with increased CV risk in the general population.

26 January 2022 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies confirmed that moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a reduced risk of adverse cardiovascular events. It is increasingly recognized that the composition of gut microbiota and metabolites is involved in modulating the cardiovascular health of the host. However, the association of moderate alcohol consumption with serum metabolites and gut microbiome and its impact on coronary artery disease (CAD) is not fully investigated.

METHOD: Serum untargeted metabolomics analysis and fecal 16S rRNA sequencing were performed on 72 male patients with CAD having various alcohol consumption (36 non-drinkers, 18 moderate drinkers, and 18 heavy drinkers) and 17 matched healthy controls. MetaboAnalyst and PICRUSt2 were utilized to analyze the possible involved metabolic pathways. Multi-omics analysis was achieved by Spearman correlation to reveal the interactions of alcohol consumption with gut microbiome and serum metabolites in patients with CAD.

RESULTS: We noted distinct differences between patients with CAD, with varying levels of alcohol consumption and healthy controls in aspects of serum metabolome and the gut microbiome. Moderate alcohol consumption significantly changed the lipidomic profiles, including reductions of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids in moderate drinkers with CAD when compared with non and heavy drinkers with CAD. Moreover, we also found the reduction of microbial-derived metabolites in moderate drinkers with CAD, such as 2-phenylacetamide and mevalonic acid. To be noted, the gut microbiota of moderate drinkers with CAD tended to resemble that of healthy controls. Compared with non-drinkers, the relative abundance of genus Paraprevotella, Lysinibacillus was significantly elevated in moderate drinkers with CAD, while the genus Bifidobacterium, Megasphaera, and Streptococcus were significantly reduced in moderate drinkers with CAD. Multi-omics analysis revealed that specific metabolites and microbes associated with moderate alcohol consumption were correlated with the severity of CAD.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that the impact of moderate alcohol consumption on serum metabolites and gut microbiota in patients with CAD seemed to be separated from that of heavy and non-alcohol consumption. Moderate drinking tended to have more positive effects on metabolic profiles and commensal flora, which may explain its beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. Overall, our study provides a novel insight into the effects of moderate alcohol consumption in patients with CAD.

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