21 July 2021 In General Health

AIM: To test the association of alcohol consumption with total and cause-specific mortality risk

DESIGN: Prospective observational multicentre population-based study

SETTING: Sixteen cohorts (15 from Europe) in the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) Project

PARTICIPANTS: A total of 142,960 individuals (mean age 50+/-13 y, 53.9% men) MEASUREMENTS: Average alcohol intake by food frequency questionnaire. Total and cause-specific mortality

FINDINGS: In comparison with lifetime abstainers, consumption of alcohol less than 10 gr/d was associated with an average 11% (95%CI: 7%-14%) reduction in the risk of total mortality, while intake >20 gr/d was associated with a 13% (7%-20%) increase in the risk of total mortality. Comparable findings were observed for cardiovascular (CV) deaths. As far as cancer is concerned, drinking up to 10 gr/d was not associated with either mortality risk reduction or increase, while alcohol intake >20 gr/d was associated with a 22% (10%-35%) increased risk of mortality. The association of alcohol with fatal outcomes was similar in men and women, differed somewhat between Countries and was more apparent in individuals preferring wine, suggesting that benefits may not be due to ethanol but other ingredients. Mediation analysis showed that HDLc explained 2.9% and 18.7% of the association between low alcohol intake and total as well as CV mortality, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with lifetime abstainers, consuming less than 1 drink per day (nadir at 5 gr/d) was associated with a reduced risk of total, cardiovascular and other causes mortality, except cancer. Intake of more than 2 drinks per day was associated with an increased risk of total, cardiovascular and especially cancer mortality.

21 July 2021 In General Health
Alcohol consumption may be associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but potential sex-related differences in this association have not been explored. Thus, we utilized 87,118 participants in the Kailuan Study, a prospective cohort initiated in 2006 to study the risk factors of cardiovascular disease in a Chinese population. We included those that did not have RA at baseline (2006), and performed cox proportional hazard modeling to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of RA according to the levels of alcohol consumption (never or past, light or moderate (1 serving/day for women, >2 servings/day for men), adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and smoking. Diagnoses of RA were confirmed via medical record review by rheumatologists. From 2006 to 2018, we identified 87 incident RA cases. After adjusting for potential confounders, the HR of RA was 1.26 (95% CI: 0.62, 2.56) for participants with light or moderate alcohol consumption and 1.98 (95% CI: 0.93, 4.22) for participants with heavy alcohol consumption) versus non-drinkers. The HR of each 10 g increase in alcohol consumption was 1.11 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.26) (p-trend = 0.09). A significant association between alcohol consumption and RA risk was observed in women, but not in men (p for interaction = 0.06). Among women, each 10 g increase in alcohol consumption was significantly associated with a high risk of RA (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.29). In contrast, each 10 g increase in alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with the risk of RA in men (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.25). Excluding past drinkers generated similar results. In this prospective Chinese cohort, increasing alcohol consumption was associated with an elevated risk of RA among women, but not in men. These findings highlight the importance of incorporating analysis of sex differences into future studies of alcohol consumption and RA risk.
21 July 2021 In General Health
BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet is a well-recognized healthy diet that has shown to induce positive changes in gut microbiota. Lifestyle changes such as diet along with physical activity could aid in weight loss and improve cardiovascular risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention on gut microbiota. METHODS: This is a substudy of the PREDIMED-Plus (Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea-Plus), a randomized controlled trial conducted in overweight/obese men and women (aged 55-75 y) with metabolic syndrome. The intervention group (IG) underwent an intensive weight loss lifestyle intervention based on an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and physical activity promotion, and the control group (CG) underwent a non-energy-restricted MedDiet for 1 y. Anthropometric, biochemical, and gut microbial 16S rRNA sequencing data were analyzed at baseline (n = 362) and 1-y follow-up (n = 343). RESULTS: IG participants had a weight loss of 4.2 (IQR, -6.8, -2.5) kg compared with 0.2 (IQR, -2.1, 1.4) kg in the CG (P
21 July 2021 In General Health
BACKGROUND: College student drinking in on-premises establishments has been associated with heavy alcohol consumption and a range of problems including assault, fighting, risky sex, and drinking and driving. Although more strictly enforcing overservice laws might reduce heavy drinking in on-premises establishments, law enforcement agencies have few resource-efficient tools for doing so, resulting in these laws seldom being enforced. OBJECTIVES: In this paper, we report the results of an evaluation of the Stop Service to Obviously-impaired Patrons (S-STOP) program that was implemented in 303 bars and restaurants in 18 university communities in California using a randomized cross-over design (early vs. delayed implementation). The S-STOP program: (a) deployed pseudo-intoxicated patrons who attempted to purchase a drink when showing obvious signs of intoxication; (b) provided feedback to owners and managers on staff performance; and (c) offered free online refresher training for staff. RESULTS: Overall, alcohol servers in bars and restaurants in these college communities were willing to serve a pseudo-intoxicated mystery shopper 90% of the time. The study found no evidence that S-STOP reduced the prevalence of alcohol sales to apparently impaired patrons during the two intervention stages of the study. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the need for developing effective interventions to prevent overservice and should prompt college and university leaders to take the lead in addressing the problem of alcohol overservice at on-premises establishments by working with community leaders, law enforcement, and retailers.
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