29 January 2023 In Diabetes
BACKGROUND: The influence of overall lifestyle behaviors on diabetic microvascular complications remains unknown. In addition, the potential mediating biomarkers underlying the association is unclear. This study aimed to examine the associations of the combined lifestyle factors with risks of total and individual microvascular complications among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to explore the potential mediation effects of metabolic biomarkers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective cohort study included 15,104 patients with T2D free of macro- and microvascular complications at baseline (2006 to 2010) from the UK Biobank. Healthy lifestyle behaviors included noncurrent smoking, recommended waist circumference, regular physical activity, healthy diet, and moderate alcohol drinking. Outcomes were ascertained using electronic health records. Over a median of 8.1 years of follow-up, 1,296 cases of the composite microvascular complications occurred, including 558 diabetic retinopathy, 625 diabetic kidney disease, and 315 diabetic neuropathy, with some patients having 2 or 3 microvascular complications simultaneously. After multivariable adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, history of hypertension, glycemic control, and medication histories, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for the participants adhering 4 to 5 low-risk lifestyle behaviors versus 0 to 1 were 0.65 (0.46, 0.91) for diabetic retinopathy, 0.43 (0.30, 0.61) for diabetic kidney disease, 0.46 (0.29, 0.74) for diabetic neuropathy, and 0.54 (0.43, 0.68) for the composite outcome (all Ps-trend =0.01). Further, the population-attributable fraction (95% CIs) of diabetic microvascular complications for poor adherence to the overall healthy lifestyle (

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