06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

OBJECTIVE: Western studies suggest that beverages may affect serum urate (SU) levels, but data from Asian populations are scarce. We evaluated the associations between beverages and SU levels in Singaporean Chinese.

METHODS: The study population consisted of 483 subjects ages 45-74 years from the Singapore Chinese Health Study cohort, recruited between 1993 and 1998. Lifestyle factors, medical histories, and diet were collected through in-person interviews. SU levels and other biomarkers were measured from blood collected between 1994 and 1996.

RESULTS: The mean age was 57.6 years and 44% were men. The geometric mean SU level was 321 mumoles/liter (range 157-719). Mean SU levels increased with alcohol consumption (P = 0.024 for trend). The mean SU level of daily alcohol drinkers was 42.6 mumoles/liter higher than that of nondrinkers. Similarly, increasing frequency of green tea intake was associated with rising SU levels. The highest mean SU level was observed in daily green tea drinkers (difference of 25.0 mumoles/liter) relative to nondrinkers (P = 0.009 for trend). Compared to nondrinkers, daily alcohol drinkers had an almost 5-fold increase in association with hyperuricemia (odds ratio [OR] 4.83, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.10-21.23), whereas daily green tea drinkers had a 2-fold increase in association with hyperuricemia (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.03-4.36). The present study did not show elevated levels of SU in individuals who consumed black tea, coffee, fruit juice, or soda.

CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption increases SU levels. The finding that daily drinking of green tea is associated with hyperuricemia needs validation in future studies.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

In a cross-sectional study, we examined the relation between intake of 3 common foodstuffs that contain flavonoids (chocolate, wine, and tea) and cognitive performance. 2031 participants (70-74 y, 55% women) recruited from the population-based Hordaland Health Study in Norway underwent cognitive testing. A cognitive test battery included the Kendrick Object Learning Test, Trail Making Test, part A (TMT-A), modified versions of the Digit Symbol Test, Block Design, Mini-Mental State Examination, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Poor cognitive performance was defined as a score in the highest decile for the TMT-A and in the lowest decile for all other tests. A self-reported FFQ was used to assess habitual food intake. Participants who consumed chocolate, wine, or tea had significantly better mean test scores and lower prevalence of poor cognitive performance than those who did not. Participants who consumed all 3 studied items had the best test scores and the lowest risks for poor test performance. The associations between intake of these foodstuffs and cognition were dose dependent, with maximum effect at intakes of approximately 10 g/d for chocolate and approximately 75-100 mL/d for wine, but approximately linear for tea. Most cognitive functions tested were influenced by intake of these 3 foodstuffs. The effect was most pronounced for wine and modestly weaker for chocolate intake. Thus, in the elderly, a diet high in some flavonoid-rich foods is associated with better performance in several cognitive abilities in a dose-dependent manner.

06 May 2014 In Diabetes




BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported inverse associations of coffee, tea, and alcohol intake with risk of type 2 diabetes, but none has reported results separately among African American women.

OBJECTIVE: We prospectively examined the relation of coffee, tea, and alcohol consumption to diabetes risk in African American women.

DESIGN: The study included 46,906 Black Women's Health Study participants aged 30-69 y at baseline in 1995. Dietary intake was assessed in 1995 and 2001 by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. During 12 y of follow-up, there were 3671 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for diabetes risk factors.

RESULTS: Multivariable RRs for intakes of 0-1, 1, 2-3, and >/=4 cups of caffeinated coffee/d relative to no coffee intake were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.04), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.01), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.93), and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.01), respectively (P for trend = 0.003). Multivariable RRs for intakes of 1-3, 4-6, 7-13, and >/=14 alcoholic drinks/wk relative to never consumption were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.00), 0.68 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.81), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.96), and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.98), respectively (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of decaffeinated coffee and tea were not associated with risk of diabetes.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that African American women who drink moderate amounts of caffeinated coffee or alcohol have a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.




06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Alcohol and caffeine intakes may play a role in the development of sudden cardiac death (SCD) because of their effects on cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate variability, and inflammation.

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the association between long-term alcohol and caffeine intakes and risk of SCD in women.

DESIGN: We examined 93,676 postmenopausal women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Women were enrolled between 1993 and 1998 and were followed until August 2009. Women completed a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and again at year 3. We modeled exposure to alcohol 3 ways: by using baseline intake only, a cumulative average of baseline and year 3 intake, and the most recent reported intake (a simple time-varying analysis).

RESULTS: Intake of 5-15 g alcohol/d (about one drink) was associated with a nonsignificantly reduced risk of SCD compared with 0.1-5 g/d of baseline intake (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.02), of cumulative average intake (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.43, 1.11), and of most recent intake (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.96), with adjustment for age, race, income, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, hormone use, and total energy. No association was found between SCD and total caffeine intake (mg/d) or cups of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeinated tea.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that about one drink per day (or 5.1-15 g/d) may be associated with a reduced risk of SCD in this population; however, this association was only statistically significant for a model using the most recent alcohol intake. Total caffeine, regular coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and regular tea intake were not associated with the risk of SCD.

This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611

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