21 April 2021 In General Health

Previous studies on the association between alcohol intake and risk of fracture have reached conflicting findings. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was to summarize earlier studies on the association of alcohol intake with risk of fracture. A systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science was conducted up to November 2020.

Prospective cohort studies that had considered alcohol consumption as the exposure variable and fracture as the main outcome or as one of the outcome variables were included in this systematic review. Publications in which odds ratios (ORs), rate or risk ratios (RRs), or hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported, were included in the meta-analysis. In total, 40 prospective cohort studies including 5,084,303 participants and 170,916 subjects with fracture were included in this systematic review; of them 38 studies with a total sample size of 5,053,117 participants and 169,560 cases of fracture were included in the meta-analysis.

Using a random-effects meta-analysis, we found a significant positive association between alcohol consumption and risk of total fractures (RR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.81) and any fractures (RR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.38). However, no significant association was observed between alcohol intake and risk of hip fractures (RR: 1.19; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.48), osteoporotic fractures (RR: 2.01; 95% CI: 0.76, 5.34), vertebral fractures (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.40), and wrist fractures (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.16).

In conclusion, we found that alcohol consumption was positively associated with risk of total fractures and any fractures. However, we did not observe any significant association between alcohol consumption and risk of hip, osteoporotic, vertebral, and wrist fractures.

24 March 2021 In Dementia
Objectives: Alcohol use remains a public health concern with accumulating evidence pointing to alcohol-associated prospective memory (PM) deficits. PM is the cognitive ability to remember to perform an intended action at some point in the future. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched the evidence base to identify and explore the evidence of a relationship between alcohol use and PM. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search in Medline, Embase, Pubmed, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science databases. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: English language publication, healthy adult participants (16 years and over), primary data on the effects of alcohol on PM. Results: Eight peer-reviewed studies were eligible for inclusion, of which five were randomized controlled trials examining the acute effects of a mild dose of alcohol and three were cross-sectional studies assessing the long-term effects of different drinking patterns on PM. Four main findings were supported by the literature: (1) compared with placebo, an acute administration of a mild alcohol dose to healthy social drinkers may lead to poorer PM performance, (2) alcohol consumption over the recommended weekly units can be associated with impaired PM function, (3) other cognitive domains can play a contributing role in alcohol-induced PM impairment, and (4) following future event simulation alcohol-induced PM impairment may be improved. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption potentially impairs PM, even at a low modest dose. Considering the small number of studies and their methodological flaws, additional research is needed to decipher the alcohol-PM relationship and provide further supporting evidence.
25 August 2020 In Drinking Patterns

ISSUES: Event-level alcohol research can inform prevention efforts by determining whether drinking contexts-such as people or places-are associated with harmful outcomes. This review synthesises evidence on associations between characteristics of adults' drinking occasions and acute alcohol-related harm.

APPROACH: We systematically searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid PsycInfo and the Web of Science Social Sciences Citation Index. Eligible papers used quantitative designs and event-level data collection methods. They linked one or more drinking contexts to acute alcohol-related harm. Following extraction of study characteristics, methods and findings, we assessed study quality and narratively synthesised the findings. PROSPERO ID: CRD42018119701.

KEY FINDINGS: Searches identified 95 eligible papers, 65 (68%) of which study young adults and 62 (65%) of which are set in the United States, which limits generalisability to other populations. These papers studied a range of harms from assault to drink driving. Study quality is good overall although measures often lack validation. We found substantial evidence for direct effects of drinking context on harms. All of the contextual characteristics types studied (e.g. people, place, timing, psychological states, drink type) were consistently associated with harms. Certain contexts were frequently studied and associated with harms, in particular, weekend drinking, drinking in licensed premises and concurrent illicit drug use.

IMPLICATIONS: The findings of our review indicate target drinking contexts for prevention efforts that are consistently associated with increased acute alcohol-related harm. CONCLUSION: A large range of contextual characteristics of drinking occasions are directly associated with acute alcohol-related harm, over and above levels of consumption.

04 May 2020 In Liver Disease

Background/Aims: Multiple meta-analyses and observational studies have reported that alcohol is a risk factor for liver cancer. However, whether there is a safe level of alcohol consumption remains unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the correlation between low-level alcohol consumption and the risk of liver cancer.

Methods: Nested case-control studies and cohort studies involving the general population published prior to July 2019 were searched. In total, 28 publications (31 cohorts) with 4,899 incident cases and 10,859 liver cancer-related deaths were included. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.

Results: Compared with those with low levels of alcohol consumption, moderate and heavy drinkers (>/=1 drink/day for females and >/=2 drinks/day for males) had pooled ORs of 1.418 (95% CI, 1.192 to 1.687; p<0.001) for liver cancer incidence and 1.167 (95% CI, 1.056 to 1.290; p=0.003) for liver cancer mortality. The pooled OR for liver disease-related mortality for those with more than low levels of alcohol consumption was 3.220 (95% CI, 2.116 to 4.898; p<0.001) and that for all-cause mortality was 1.166 (95% CI, 1.065 to 1.278; p=0.001). The sensitivity analysis showed that none of the studies had a strong effect on the pooled OR. The Egger test, Begg rank correlation test, and the funnel plot showed no overt indication of publication bias.

Conclusions: Continuous consumption of more than a low-level of alcohol (>/=1 drink/day for females and >/=2 drinks/day for males) is related to a higher risk of liver cancer.

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