22 September 2022 In General Health

The association between alcohol intake and the risk of glioma has been widely studied, but these results have yielded conflicting findings. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review and updated meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the association between alcohol intake and the risk of glioma. A systematic literature search of relevant articles published in PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI and Wan fang databases up to December 2021 was conducted. Pooled estimated of relative risk (RR) and 95 % CI were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of eight articles with three case-control studies involving 2706 glioma cases and 2 189 927 participants were included in this meta-analysis. A reduced risk of glioma was shown for the low-moderate alcohol drinking v. non-drinking (RR = 0.87; 95 % CI (0.78, 0.97); P = 0.014). In addition, there was no evidence of an increased risk of glioma in the heavy alcohol drinking compared with non-drinking (RR = 0.89; 95 % CI (0.67, 1.18); P = 0.404). The findings suggest an inverse association between low-moderate alcohol drinking and the risk of glioma, in the absence, however, of a dose-response relationship. More prospective studies are needed to provide further insight into the association between alcohol drinking and glioma risk.

28 April 2022 In Drinking & Driving

BACKGROUND: Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are among the eight-leading causes of death globally. Strategies and policies have been put in place by many countries to reduce RTCs and to prevent RTCs and related injuries/deaths.

METHODS: In this review, we searched the following databases Ovid Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Epistemonikos, Web of Science, and LILACS for reviews matching our inclusion criteria between periods January 1950 and March 2020. We did not apply language or publication restrictions in the searches. We, however, excluded reviews that focused primarily on injury prevention and reviews that looked at crashes not involving a motor vehicle.

RESULTS: We identified 35 systematic reviews matching our inclusion criteria and most of the reviews (33/35) included studies strictly from high-income countries. Most reviews were published before 2015, with only 5 published between 2015 and 2020. Methodological quality varied between reviews. Most reviews focused on enforcement intervention. There was strong evidence that random breath testing, selective breath testing, and sobriety checkpoints were effective in reducing alcohol-related crashes and associated fatal and nonfatal injuries. Other reviews found that sobriety checkpoints reduced the number of crashes by 17% [CI: (- 20, - 14)]. Road safety campaigns were found to reduce the numbers of RTCs by 9% [CI: (- 11, - 8%)]. Mass media campaigns indicated some median decrease in crashes across all studies and all levels of crash severity was 10% (IQR: 6 to 14%). Converting intersections to roundabouts was associated with a reduction of 30 to 50% in the number of RTCs resulting in injury and property damage. Electronic stability control measure was found to reduce single-vehicle crashes by - 49% [95% CI: (- 55, - 42%)]. No evidence was found to indicate that post-license driver education is effective in preventing road traffic injuries or crashes.

CONCLUSION: There were many systematic reviews of varying quality available which included studies that were conducted in high-income settings. The overview has found that behavioural based interventions are very effective in reducing RTCs.

23 February 2022 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Research has long found 'J-shaped' relationships between alcohol consumption and certain health outcomes, indicating a protective effect of moderate consumption. However, methodological limitations in most studies hinder causal inference. This review aimed to identify all observational studies employing improved approaches to mitigate confounding in characterizing alcohol-long-term health relationships, and to qualitatively synthesize their findings.

METHODS: Eligible studies met the above description, were longitudinal (with pre-defined exceptions), discretized alcohol consumption, and were conducted with human populations. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase and SCOPUS were searched in May 2020, yielding 16 published manuscripts reporting on cancer, diabetes, dementia, mental health, cardiovascular health, mortality, HIV seroconversion, and musculoskeletal health. Risk of bias of cohort studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and a recently developed tool was used for Mendelian Randomization studies.

RESULTS: A variety of functional forms were found, including reverse J/J-shaped relationships for prostate cancer and related mortality, dementia risk, mental health, and certain lipids. However, most outcomes were only evaluated by a single study, and few studies provided information on the role of alcohol consumption pattern. CONCLUSIONS: More research employing enhanced causal inference methods is urgently required to accurately characterize alcohol-long-term health relationships. Those studies that have been conducted find a variety of linear and non-linear functional forms, with results tending to be discrepant even within specific health outcomes.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42020185861.

22 October 2021 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Controversial results of the association between alcohol consumption and risk of bladder cancer were reported by the previous meta-analyses.

OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively investigate the association between alcohol consumption and risk of bladder cancer based on prospective cohort studies, and explore whether there is potential dose-response relation.

METHOD: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library databases, China Biology Medicine disc (CBM), and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for relevant studies. Categorical meta-analysis was performed for risk estimates of any alcohol consumers versus non-drinkers as well as different drinking degrees (light, moderate, and heavy) versus none. And two-stage generalized least-squares regression and restricted cubic spline, as well as fixed-effects dose-response models, were used for linear and nonlinear dose-response relation exploration.

RESULTS: 9 prospective cohort studies including 1,971,396 individuals were finally included. We did not observe a significant association between alcohol intake and the risk of bladder cancer in the entire population. Linear association was detected in those who consumed alcohol from liquor or spirits (P linear=0.02). One drink increment each day of alcohol could elevate the risk of bladder cancer by 9% (RR=1.09; 95%CI: 1.01-1.17). Alcohol was a risk factor of bladder cancer for male drinkers (RR=1.23; 95%CI: 1.13-1.35; I(2)=3.7%), while none linear or nonlinear relation was found.

CONCLUSION: No significant association between alcohol consumption and bladder cancer risk was found in the entire population, but there was a linear dose-response relation in those who consume alcohol from liquor or spirits. Alcohol may elevate the risk of bladder cancer in males in a dose-independent way. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, PROSPERO (CRD42020216195).

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