15 June 2022 In Drinking Patterns

This review discusses the inconsistent recommendations on alcohol consumption and its association with chronic disease, highlighting the need for an evidence-based consensus. Alcohol is an addictive substance consumed worldwide, especially in European countries. Recommendations on alcohol consumption are controversial. On one hand, many nonrandomized studies defend that moderate consumption has a beneficial cardiovascular effect or a lower risk of all-cause mortality. On the other hand, alcohol is associated with an increased risk of cancer, neurological diseases, or injuries, among others. For years, efforts have been made to answer the question regarding the safe amount of alcohol intake, but controversies remain. Observational studies advocate moderate alcohol consumption following a Mediterranean pattern (red wine with meals avoiding binge drinking) as the best option for current drinkers. However, agencies such as the IARC recommend abstention from alcohol as it is a potent carcinogen. In this context, more randomized trial with larger sample size and hard clinical endpoints should be conducted to clarify the available evidence and provide clinicians with support for their clinical practice.

15 June 2022 In Diabetes

PURPOSE: Previous meta-analyses assessed the association of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since then, new large-scale cohort studies have been published. In addition, dose-response relation was not previously investigated and the certainty of evidence was not assessed. We aimed to explore the dose-response relationship between adherence to the MedDiet and the risk of T2D.

METHODS: We did a systematic search using PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science up to April 2021 for prospective cohort studies of the relationship between adherence to the MedDiet and the risk of T2D in the general population. The summary relative risks (RR) and 95%CI were estimated by applying a random-effects model.

RESULTS: Fourteen prospective cohort studies (410,303 participants and 41,466 cases) were included. There was an inverse association for the highest versus lowest category of adherence to the MedDiet (RR: 0.79, 95%CI 0.72, 0.88; I(2) = 82%, n = 14; Risk difference: - 21 per 1000 person, 95%CI - 28, - 12; GRADE = moderate certainty), and for a 2-point increment in the MedDiet adherence score (RR: 0.86, 95%CI 0.82, 0.91; n = 13). The RR remained significant after controlling for important confounders and in almost all subgroups, especially subgroups defined by geographical region. We observed an inverse linear association between MedDiet adherence score and T2D incidence.

CONCLUSION: Adherence to the MedDiet was inversely related to T2D risk in a dose-response manner. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet may be a good advice for the primary prevention of T2D.

REGISTRY AND REGISTRY NUMBER: PROSPERO (CRD42021246589).

26 May 2021 In General Health
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported inconsistent results on the relationship between alcohol intake and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to illustrate the potential role of alcohol intake on the progression of SLE. METHODS: An electronic search of the PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane library databases was conducted from their inception up to March 2020. Observational studies that investigated the role of alcohol intake on the risk of SLE were eligible for inclusion in this study. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated as an effect estimate using the random-effects model. RESULTS: Seven case-control studies (n = 3, 251) and three cohort studies (n = 322, 479) were selected for the final meta-analysis. Mild (OR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.53-1.38; p = 0.515) or heavy (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.37-1.09; p = 0.102) alcohol intake were not associated with the risk of SLE, while moderate alcohol intake could protect against the risk of SLE (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.93; p = 0.012). Sensitivity analysis suggested that heavy alcohol intake was associated with a reduced risk of SLE (OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32-0.67; p
23 November 2020 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome in old people. It remains controversial whether Mediterranean diet could prevent old people from developing into frailty. The aim of this study is to summarize the relevant studies and assess the effectiveness of adherence to Mediterranean diet on frailty in old people.

METHOD: A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted to identify all relevant studies up to Oct 2017. We included studies regarding the associations between adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of frailty among elders. A meta-analysis was performed to explore the effects of Mediterranean diet on frailty.

RESULTS: Six studies matched the inclusion criteria, of which five were prospective and one was cross-sectional. A total of 10,210 participants from the five prospective cohort studies were included to perform the meta-analyses. In comparison with lowest adherence to Mediterranean diet, elders with highest adherence to Mediterranean diet were significantly associated with lower risk of frailty in the future (RR= 0.56, 95% CI=0.36-0.89, p=0.015). Furthermore, the pooled estimates from four studies performed among participants in western countries (European and North American) showed that higher adherence to Mediterranean diet was associated with a 52% reduced risk of frailty (RR= 0.48, 95% CI=0.32-0.72, p<0.001). However, one study showed no association between Mediterranean diet and frailty among Asian elders (RR=1.06, 95% CI=0.83-1.36, p=0.638).

CONCLUSION: A higher adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower risk of frailty in old people. Meanwhile, the benefits may be more obvious among elders from western countries.

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