26 May 2021 In Cardiovascular System
In the past few decades, research has focused on the importance of addressing modifiable risk factors as a means of lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which represents the worldwide leading cause of death. For quite a long time, it has been considered that ethanol intake has a biphasic impact on the cardiovascular system, mainly depending on the drinking pattern, amount of consumption, and type of alcoholic beverage. Multiple case-control studies and meta-analyses reported the existence of a "U-type" or "J-shaped" relationship between alcohol and CVD, as well as mortality, indicating that low to moderate alcohol consumption decreases the number of adverse cardiovascular events and deaths compared to abstinence, while excessive alcohol use has unquestionably deleterious effects on the circulatory system. However, beginning in the early 2000s, the cardioprotective effects of low doses of alcohol were abnegated by the results of large epidemiological studies. Therefore, this narrative review aims to reiterate the association of alcohol use with cardiac arrhythmias, dilated cardiomyopathy, arterial hypertension, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, highlighting literature disagreements over the risk and benefits of low to moderate drinking on the cardiovascular system.
23 November 2020 In Cancer

In 2016, alcohol consumption was one of the leading risk factors for cancer development and cancer death globally, causing an estimated 376 200 cancer deaths, representing 4.2% of all cancer deaths, and 10.3 million cancer disability-adjusted life years lost, representing 4.2% of all cancer disability-adjusted life years lost.

The impact of alcohol consumption on cancer in 2016 varied by age group; the proportion of cancer deaths attributable to alcohol consumption ranged from 13.9% of cancer deaths among people aged 30-34 years to 2.7% of cancer deaths among people aged 80-84 years.

The burden of cancers caused by alcohol consumption might be decreased through (i) individual-level and societal-level interventions that reduce alcohol consumption, and (ii) measures that target those risk factors that interact with alcohol consumption to increase the risk of cancer or that directly affect the risk of alcohol-related cancers.

27 March 2020 In General Health

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the influence of sex on the effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD).

METHODS: This population-based cohort study examined data of 6,795,816 Koreans aged >/=40 years from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database who completed a national program for general health check-up at 2009. For a maximum 9 years' observation period, incident PD was tracked, and hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using the Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for potential confounding factors for each sex group. We tested interactions on the addictive scale by estimating the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI).

RESULTS: 3,400,538 men and 3,395,278 women generated 24,365,694 and 24,754,154 person-years, respectively. A total of 13,223 men (0.39%) and 14,818 women (0.44%) developed PD during follow-up. Current smoking and alcohol independently reduced the risk of PD in both sexes. Current male smokers tended to have a lower risk of PD than current female smokers at equal smoking intensity (P < 0.0001 for interaction) and duration (P < 0.0001 for interaction). In contrast, at equal alcohol intakes, PD risk tended to be lower in female drinkers than in male drinkers (P < 0.0001 for interaction). A superadditive interaction between smoking and alcohol was found in current male smokers (RERI, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.34; P = 0.015) and female ex-smokers (RERI, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.76; P = 0.014).

CONCLUSION: Our data suggest sex-related differences in individual and joint impacts of smoking and alcohol intake on the risk of PD.

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