15 June 2022 In Diabetes

Despite earlier meta-analyses on the association between adherences to Mediterranean diet (MD) and risk of diabetes, there is no comprehensive and updated study assessing this issue. Furthermore, no earlier study has examined the nonlinear dose-response relationship between consumption of Mediterranean diet and risk of diabetes. The current systematic review and meta-analysis was done to investigate the linear and non-linear dose-response relationship between Mediterranean diet and incidence of diabetes. Using relevant keywords, electronic searches for prospective studies were conducted in ISI Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus until January 2022. The reported hazard ratios or odds ratios in the primary studies were regarded as risk ratios (RRs). The overall effect was calculated using a random-effects model that accounts for between-study variability. The potential non-linear dose-response associations were tested using a two-stage hierarchical regression model. Based on 16 prospective studies (with 17 effect sizes), we found that the greatest adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with a reduced risk of diabetes (Pooled RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.77-0.90; I2 =79%, P</= 0.001). Based on linear dose-response analysis, each 1-score rise in the Mediterranean diet score was associated with a 3% decreased risk of diabetes (HR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96-0.98, P< 0.001). A nonlinear relationship (P nonlinearity = 0.001) was also observed between Mediterranean diet score and risk of type 2 diabetes. Even modest adherence to the Mediterranean diet was linked to a decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes.

22 October 2021 In Cardiovascular System

Alcohol consumption has been shown to have complex, and sometimes paradoxical, associations with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Several hundred epidemiological studies on this topic have been published in recent decades. In this narrative review, the epidemiological evidence will be examined for the associations between alcohol consumption, including average alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, and alcohol use disorders, and CVDs, including ischaemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Methodological shortcomings, such as exposure classification and measurement, reference groups, and confounding variables (measured or unmeasured) are discussed. Based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses, the evidence seems to indicate non-linear relationships with many CVDs. Large-scale longitudinal epidemiological studies with multiple detailed exposure and outcome measurements, and the extensive assessment of genetic and confounding variables, are necessary to elucidate these associations further. Conflicting associations depending on the exposure measurement and CVD outcome are hard to reconcile, and make clinical and public health recommendations difficult. Furthermore, the impact of alcohol on other health outcomes needs to be taken into account. For people who drink alcohol, the less alcohol consumed the better.

25 August 2020 In Phenolic compounds

There is a growing body of evidence implicating the gut 'microbiome' role in overall human health. Bacterial species belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are generally considered to be beneficial and are commonly used in probiotic applications, whereas increases in some genera including Clostridum, Eubacterium and Bacteroides are implicated in negative health outcomes.Dietary polyphenols are bioactive compounds that have been found to increase the numbers of beneficial bacteria and antimicrobial actions against pathogenic bacteria, however most studies have been conducted in animal models or in-vitro colonic models.

The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of recent trials on the effect of dietary grape and red wine polyphenols on the gut microbiota in humans. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was conducted of electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Wed of Science and Scopus) to identify human intervention trials examining the effect of grape or wine polyphenols on gut microbiota. Seven trials met the inclusion criteria. One study looked at changes in gut microbiota following the ingestion of de-alcoholised red wine or red wine, and six studies referred to gut microbiota as intermediates in formation of phenolic metabolites.

All studies confirmed that ingested polyphenols from grape and red wine, were modulated by gut microbiota, increasing numbers of polyphenolic metabolites which were found in blood, urine, ileal fluid and faeces. Intake of polyphenols derived from grape and red wine can modulate gut microbiota and contribute to beneficial microbial ecology that can enhance human health benefits. Additionally, grape and red wine polyphenols were modulated by the gut microbiota and there is a potential for a two-way relationship between the gut microbiota and polyphenolic compounds.

Nevertheless, additional research is required to fully understand the complex relationship between gut microbiota and dietary polyphenols before any health claims can be made in relation to human health

25 August 2020 In General Health

Alcoholic beverages have been consumed for thousands of years, attracting great human interest for social, personal, and religious occasions. In addition, they have long been debated to confer cardioprotective benefits. The French Paradox is an observation of a low prevalence of ischemic heart disease, with high intakes of saturated fat, a phenomenon accredited to the consumption of red wine.

Although many epidemiological investigations have supported this view, others have attributed it to beer or spirits, with many suggesting that the drink type is not important. Although excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is commonly regarded to be detrimental to cardiovascular health, there is a debate as to whether light-to-moderate intake is cardioprotective. Although there is extensive epidemiological support for this drinking pattern, a consensus has not been reached.

On the basis of published work, we describe the composition of wine and the effects of constituent polyphenols on chronic cardiovascular diseases

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