04 December 2014 In Phenolic compounds

Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural polyphenolic compound that exists in Polygonum cuspidatum, grapes, peanuts and berries, as well as their manufactured products, especially red wine. Resveratrol is a pharmacologically active compound that interacts with multiple targets in a variety of cardiovascular disease models to exert protective effects or induce a reduction in cardiovascular risks parameters. This review attempts to primarily serve to summarize the current research findings regarding the putative cardioprotective effects of resveratrol and the molecular pathways underlying these effects. One intent is to hopefully provide a relatively comprehensive resource for clues that may prompt ideas for additional mechanistic studies which might further elucidate and strengthen the role of the stilbene family of compounds in cardiovascular disease and cardioprotection. Model systems that incorporate a significant functional association with tissues outside of the cardiovascular system proper, such as adipose (cell culture, obesity models) and pancreatic (diabetes) tissues, were reviewed, and the molecular pathways and/or targets related to these models and influenced by resveratrol are discussed. Because the body of work encompassing the stilbenes and other phytochemicals in the context of longevity and the ability to presumably mitigate a plethora of afflictions is replete with conflicting information and controversy, especially so with respect to the human response, we tried to remain as neutral as possible in compiling and presenting the more current data with minimal commentary, permitting the reader free reign to extract the knowledge most helpful to their own investigations.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

The natural polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) displays a wide spectrum of health beneficial activities, yet the precise mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here we show that RSV promotes the multimerization and cellular levels of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The stimulatory effect of RSV was not affected by knocking out Sirt1, but was diminished by suppressing the expression levels of DsbA-L, a recently identified adiponectin-interactive protein that promotes adiponectin multimerization. Suppression of the Akt signaling pathway resulted in an increase in the expression levels of DsbA-L and adiponectin. On the other hand, knocking out FOXO1 or suppressing the activity or expression levels of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) down-regulated DsbA-L and adiponectin. The stimulatory effect of RSV on adiponectin and DsbA-L expression was completely diminished in FOXO1-suppressed and AMPK-inactivated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that RSV promotes adiponectin multimerization in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via a Sirt1-independent mechanism. In addition, we show that the stimulatory effect of RSV is regulated by both the Akt/FOXO1 and the AMPK signaling pathways. Last, we show that DsbA-L plays a critical role in the promoting effect of RSV on adiponectin multimerization and cellular levels.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

Resveratrol is a natural compound that affects energy metabolism and mitochondrial function and serves as a calorie restriction mimetic, at least in animal models of obesity. Here, we treated 11 healthy, obese men with placebo and 150 mg/day resveratrol (resVida) in a randomized double-blind crossover study for 30 days. Resveratrol significantly reduced sleeping and resting metabolic rate. In muscle, resveratrol activated AMPK, increased SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha protein levels, increased citrate synthase activity without change in mitochondrial content, and improved muscle mitochondrial respiration on a fatty acid-derived substrate. Furthermore, resveratrol elevated intramyocellular lipid levels and decreased intrahepatic lipid content, circulating glucose, triglycerides, alanine-aminotransferase, and inflammation markers. Systolic blood pressure dropped and HOMA index improved after resveratrol. In the postprandial state, adipose tissue lipolysis and plasma fatty acid and glycerol decreased. In conclusion, we demonstrate that 30 days of resveratrol supplementation induces metabolic changes in obese humans, mimicking the effects of calorie restriction.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

Wine intake is associated with a better lung function in the general population, yet the source of this effect is unknown. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, has anti-inflammatory properties in the lung, its effects being partially mediated via induction of Sirtuin (SIRT)1 activity. We assessed the impact of wine and resveratrol intake, and SIRT1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on lung function in the general population. Effects of red and white wine and resveratrol intake on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1)/FVC were analysed in the population-based Doetinchem cohort (n=3,224). Associations of four tagging SIRT1 SNPs with lung function were analysed in the Doetinchem (n=1,152) and Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen (n=1,390) cohorts. Resveratrol intake was associated with higher FVC levels, and white wine intake with higher FEV(1) levels and lower risk of airway obstruction. SIRT1 SNPs were not significantly associated with level or course of lung function, either directly or indirectly via wine or resveratrol intake. This study shows a positive association of resveratrol intake with lung function in the general population, confirms the previously reported positive association of white wine intake with higher levels of FEV(1), and additionally shows an association with a higher FEV(1)/FVC ratio. These effects probably do not run via SNPs in SIRT1.

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