26 August 2022 In Phenolic compounds

SCOPE: Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are associated with higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that red wine has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. In this work if resveratrol content in red wine increases SHBG levels is explored.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A pilot study aims at testing the effect of drinking for 14 days two types of red wine with different resveratrol content is conducted in 26 healthy volunteers. SHBG levels and several biochemical parameters are measured at the beginning and the end of every period. Results show that consumption of both wines does not change body mass index or biochemical markers of liver injury. The low resveratrol wine does not modify the lipid profile or SHBG levels. By contrast, red wine with high resveratrol content significantly reduces total cholesterol in both men and women. Finally, red wine with high resveratrol content increases circulating SHBG in women but not in men.

CONCLUSIONS: Red wine rich in resveratrol reduces total cholesterol in men and women and increases SHBG only in women. Further research aims at investigating the potential SHBG role enhancement mediated by resveratrol regarding cardiovascular protection that presents women in comparison with men seems warranted.

26 August 2022 In Diabetes

PURPOSE: To compare acute effects of moist snuff with or without nicotine and red wine with or without alcohol on prandial hormones and metabolism.

BASIC PROCEDURES AND METHODS: Two deciliters of wine, with or without alcohol, were taken together with a standardized supervised meal in 14 healthy women and men. All participants also combined the meal with usage of with moist snuff, with or without nicotine. The snuff was replaced hourly at each of the four settings, i.e. snuff with or without nicotine combined with red wine with or without alcohol, that started at 0800 o'clock and were finished at noon.

MAIN FINDINGS: We found ghrelin levels to be more efficiently suppressed when drinking red wine with alcohol compared to non-alcoholic wine by analyzing area under the curve (AUC). AUC for regular wine was 370 +/- 98 pg/ml x hours and 559 +/- 154 pg/ml x hours for de-alcoholized red wine, p < 0.0001 by general linear model. The postprandial metabolic rate was further elevated following alcohol containing red wine compared with non-alcoholic red wine (p = 0.022). Although glucose levels were not uniformly lower after alcoholic red wine, we found lowered glucose levels 3 h after the meal (mean glucose wine: 4.38 +/- 0.96 mmol/l, non-alcoholic wine: 4.81 +/- 0.77 mmol/l, p = 0.005). Nicotine-containing moist snuff (AUC: 1406 +/- 149 nmol/ml x hours) elevated the levels of serum cortisol compared with nicotine-free snuff (AUC: 1268 +/- 119 nmol/ml x hours, p = 0.005). We found no effects of nicotine or alcohol on feelings of satiety.

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol in red wine augmented the postprandial suppression of ghrelin and it also lowered postprandial glucose 3 h post-meal. These effects are in line with observational trials linking regular intake of moderate amounts of red wine with lower risk for diabetes.

22 March 2022 In General Health

We aimed to investigate whether alcohol intake contributes to lung function levels and which beverage type may have an effect. We investigated 3742 participants from the Wuhai-Zhuhai Cohort and 12,526 participants from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort, and they were followed up for 3 and 5 years, respectively.

Information on the type and daily amount of alcohol intake was collected through face-to-face interviews. Lung function was measured by trained physicians using electronic spirometers. Compared with nondrinkers, moderate alcohol intake was significantly associated with a 70.03 and 74.92 mL increase in FEV1 and FVC, respectively (P < 0.05), after adjusting for covariates.

With regard to beverage type, red wine was associated with a 105.31 and 98.91 mL increase in FEV1 and FVC, respectively (P < 0.05). Moderate alcohol intake was also associated with a 53.37 and 66.17 mL increase in FEV1 and FVC for liquor, respectively, and a 106.90 and 103.62 mL increase for red wine (all Ps < 0.05). In the longitudinal analyses, moderate alcohol intake and red wine were associated with a 67.77 and 103.77 mL increase in FVC, respectively (P < 0.05).

Moderate alcohol intake is associated with increased lung function, especially for red wine. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism.

23 February 2021 In Phenolic compounds

PURPOSE: Red wine polyphenols (RWP) are plant-based molecules that have been extensively studied in relation to their protective effects on vascular health in both animals and humans. The aim of this review was to quantify and compare the efficacy of RWP and pure resveratrol on outcomes measures of vascular health and function in both animals and humans.

METHODS: Comprehensive database searches were carried out through PubMed, Web of Science and OVID for randomised, placebo-controlled studies in both animals and humans. Meta-analyses were carried out on acute and chronic studies of RWP in humans, alongside sub-group analysis where possible. Risk-of-bias assessment was carried out for all included studies based on randomisation, allocation, blinding, outcome data reporting, and other biases.

RESULTS: 48 animal and 37 human studies were included in data extraction following screening. Significant improvements in measures of blood pressure and vascular function following RWP were seen in 84% and 100% of animal studies, respectively. Human studies indicated significant improvements in systolic blood pressure overall (- 2.6 mmHg, 95% CI: [- 4.8, - 0.4]), with a greater improvement in pure-resveratrol studies alone (- 3.7 mmHg, 95% CI: [- 7.3, - 0.0]). No significant effects of RWP were seen in diastolic blood pressure or flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery.

CONCLUSION: RWP have the potential to improve vascular health in at risk human populations, particularly in regard to lowering systolic blood pressure; however, such benefits are not as prevalent as those observed in animal models.

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