15 June 2022 In General Health

OBJECTIVES: To test the efficacy of calorie labelling for alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages on restaurant menus on noticing calorie information, calorie knowledge, and perceived and actual influence on hypothetical beverage orders.

METHODS: Participants included upper-level university students of legal drinking age residing in Ontario, Canada (n = 283). Using a between-groups experiment, participants were randomized to view one of two menus: (1) No Calorie Information (control), and (2) Calorie Information adjacent to each beverage. Participants completed a hypothetical ordering task, and measures related to noticing calorie information, calorie knowledge, and actual and perceived influence of calorie information on beverages ordered were assessed. Linear, logistic, and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the four outcomes.

RESULTS: The odds of noticing calorie information were significantly higher in the Calorie Information (72.6%) versus No Calorie Information condition (8.0%) (OR = 43.7, 95% CI: 16.8, 113.8). Compared to those in the No Calorie Information condition, participants in the Calorie Information condition had significantly lower odds of responding 'Don't know' (OR = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.09), underestimating (OR = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.2), and overestimating (OR = 0.05, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.2) versus accurately estimating calories in beverages ordered. No significant differences were observed between menu labelling conditions in the calories in beverages ordered or the perceived influence of calorie information on the number of beverages ordered.

CONCLUSION: Exposure to menus with calorie information increased consumers noticing the calorie information, and accurately estimating calories in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages ordered. These results have implications for policy-makers considering mandatory menu labelling policy inclusive of alcoholic beverages.

13 October 2020 In Cardiovascular System
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have documented lower risks of coronary heart disease and diabetes among moderate alcohol consumers relative to abstainers, but only a randomized clinical trial can provide conclusive evidence for or against these associations. AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe the rationale and design of the Moderate Alcohol and Cardiovascular Health Trial, aimed to assess the cardiometabolic effects of one alcoholic drink daily over an average of six years among adults 50 years or older. METHODS: This multicenter, parallel-arm randomized trial was designed to compare the effects of one standard serving ( approximately 11-15 g) daily of a preferred alcoholic beverage to abstention. The trial aimed to enroll 7800 people at high risk of cardiovascular disease. The primary composite endpoint comprised time to the first occurrence of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal ischemic stroke, hospitalized angina, coronary/carotid revascularization, or total mortality. The trial was designed to provide >80% power to detect a 15% reduction in the risk of the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included diabetes. Adverse effects of special interest included injuries, congestive heart failure, alcohol use disorders, and cancer. RESULTS: We describe the design, governance, masking issues, and data handling. In three months of field center activity until termination by the funder, the trial randomized 32 participants, successfully screened another 70, and identified approximately 400 additional interested individuals. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a feasible design for a long-term randomized trial of moderate alcohol consumption. Such a study will provide the highest level of evidence for the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and will directly inform clinical and public health guidelines.

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