22 September 2022 In Phenolic compounds

(Poly)phenols have anti-diabetic properties that are mediated through the regulation of the main biomarkers associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (IR)), as well as the modulation of other metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. A wide range of human and pre-clinical studies supports these effects for different plant products containing mixed (poly)phenols (e.g., berries, cocoa, tea) and for some single compounds (e.g., resveratrol). We went through some of the latest human intervention trials and pre-clinical studies looking at (poly)phenols against T2DM to update the current evidence and to examine the progress in this field to achieve consistent proof of the anti-diabetic benefits of these compounds. Overall, the reported effects remain small and highly variable, and the accumulated data are still limited and contradictory, as shown by recent meta-analyses. We found newly published studies with better experimental strategies, but there were also examples of studies that still need to be improved. Herein, we highlight some of the main aspects that still need to be considered in future studies and reinforce the messages that need to be taken on board to achieve consistent evidence of the anti-diabetic effects of (poly)phenols.

26 January 2022 In Cardiovascular System

The consumption of food for pleasure is mainly associated with adverse health effects. This review was carried out to verify recent reports on the impact of chocolate and wine consumption on cardiovascular health, with a particular focus on atherosclerosis. On one side, these products have proven adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, but on the other hand, if consumed in optimal amounts, they have cardiovascular benefits.

The submitted data suggest that the beneficial doses are 30-50 g and 130/250 mL for chocolate and wine, respectively, for women and men. The accumulated evidence indicates that the active ingredients in the products under consideration in this review are phenolic compounds, characterized by anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiplatelet properties. However, there are also some reports of cardioprotective properties of other compounds such as esters, amines, biogenic amines, amino acids, fatty acids, mineral ingredients, and vitamins.

Our narrative review has shown that in meta-analyses of intervention studies, consumption of chocolate and wine was positively associated with the beneficial outcomes associated with the cardiovascular system. In contrast, the assessment with the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) scale did not confirm this phenomenon.

In addition, mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds present in chocolate and wine depend on some factors, such as age, sex, body weight, and the presence of additional medical conditions. Patients using cardiovascular drugs simultaneously with both products should be alert to the risk of pharmacologically relevant interactions during their use.

Our narrative review leads to the conclusion that there is abundant evidence to prove the beneficial impact of consuming both products on cardiovascular health, however some evidence still remains controversial. Many authors of studies included in this review postulated that well-designed, longitudinal studies should be performed to determine the effects of these products and their components on atherosclerosis and other CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) disease.

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