22 September 2022 In Phenolic compounds

Plant-derived (poly)phenolic compounds have been undoubtedly shown to promote endocrine homeostasis through the improvement of diverse metabolic outcomes. Amongst diverse potential mechanisms, the prebiotic modulatory effects exerted by these compounds on the gut microbiota have supported their nutraceutical application in both experimental and clinical approaches. However, the comprehension of the microbiota modulatory patterns observed upon (poly)phenol-based dietary interventions is still in its infancy, which makes the standardization of the metabolic outcomes in response to a given (poly)phenol a herculean task. Thus, this narrative review sought to gather up-to-date information on the relationship among (poly)phenols intake, their modulatory effect on the gut microbiota diversity, and consequent metabolic outcomes as a supportive tool for the future design of experimental approaches and even clinical trials.

16 June 2015 In Phenolic compounds

BACKGROUND: Mediterranean-style diet has been considered for its important beneficial effects on the progression of CV disease. Wine is an important component of the Mediterranean diet, and moderate wine drinkers have lower mortality rates than nondrinkers and heavy drinkers in epidemiologic studies. The beneficial effects of red wine are thought to be dependent on the polyphenol compounds such as resveratrol that exhibit potent antioxidant activity. However, white wine, although lacking polyphenols, contains simple phenols, such as tyrosol (Tyr) and hydroxytyrosol (OH-Tyr), characteristic also of extra-virgin olive oil, which may share similar antioxidant and inflammatory properties.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: The effect of white wine and extra-virgin olive oil on inflammatory markers was evaluated in 10 healthy volunteers and in 10 patients with CKD (chronic kidney disease) K-DOQI stage III-IV in a prospective, single blind, randomized, cross-over trial. After two weeks of wash-out from alcoholic beverages, subjects were randomized to a cross-over design A-B or B-A of a 2-week treatment with white wine (4 ml/kg body weight, 0.48 g/kg of alcohol 12%, corresponding to 2-3 glasses/daily) and extra-virgin olive oil (treatment A) or extra-virgin olive oil alone (treatment B). The two study periods were separated by a two-week wash-out period. At baseline and at the end of each treatment, plasma levels of inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentration were determined. Urinary levels of Tyr, OH-Tyr, and their metabolites were measured at the same time.

RESULTS: During combined consumption of white wine and extra-virgin olive oil (treatment A), plasma levels of CRP and IL-6 decreased from 4.1 +/- 1.8 to 2.4 +/- 1.9 mg/l (p < 0.05) and from 5.3 +/- 3.2 to 3.4 +/- 2.3 mg/l (p < 0.05) in CKD patients. CRP decreased from 2.6 +/- 1.2 to 1.9 +/- 0.9 mg/l (p < 0.05), and IL-6 decreased from 2.2 +/- 1.8 to 1.7 +/- 1.3 mg/l (p = ns) in healthy volunteers. No significant variation versus baseline was observed during treatment B. A significant increase in urinary Tyr and OH-Tyr was observed during treatment A (white wine and extra-virgin olive oil).

CONCLUSIONS: Plasma markers of chronic inflammation were significantly reduced in CKD patients during the combined consumption of white wine and olive oil, suggesting a possible anti-inflammatory effect of this nutritional intervention.

15 June 2015 In Phenolic compounds

INTRODUCTION: Several studies demonstrated that endothelium dependent vasodilatation is impaired in cardiovascular and chronic kidney diseases because of oxidant stress-induced nitric oxide availability reduction. The Mediterranean diet, which is characterized by food containing phenols, was correlated with a reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases and delayed progression toward end stage chronic renal failure. Previous studies demonstrated that both red and white wine exert cardioprotective effects. In particular, wine contains Caffeic acid (CAF), an active component with known antioxidant activities.

AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of low doses of CAF on oxidative stress-induced endothelial injury.

RESULTS: CAF increased basal as well as acetylcholine-induced NO release by a mechanism independent from eNOS expression and phosphorylation. In addition, low doses of CAF (100 nM and 1 muM) increased proliferation and angiogenesis and inhibited leukocyte adhesion and endothelial cell apoptosis induced by hypoxia or by the uremic toxins ADMA, p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate. The biological effects exerted by CAF on endothelial cells may be at least in part ascribed to modulation of NO release and by decreased ROS production. In an experimental model of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice, CAF significantly decreased tubular cell apoptosis, intraluminal cast deposition and leukocyte infiltration.

CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that CAF, at very low dosages similar to those observed after moderate white wine consumption, may exert a protective effect on endothelial cell function by modulating NO release independently from eNOS expression and phosphorylation. CAF-induced NO modulation may limit cardiovascular and kidney disease progression associated with oxidative stress-mediated endothelial injury.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

White wines are generally low in polyphenol content as compared to red wines. However, Champagne wines have been shown to contain relatively high amounts of phenolic acids that may exert protective cellular actions in vivo. In this study, we have investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of Champagne wine extracts, and individual phenolics present in these extracts, against peroxynitrite-induced injury. Organic and aqueous Champagne wine extracts exhibited potent neuroprotective activity against peroxynitrite-induced injury at low concentrations (0.1 microg/mL). This protection appeared to be in part due to the cellular actions of individual components found in the organic extracts, notably tyrosol, caffeic acid, and gallic acid. These phenolics were observed to exert potent neuroprotection at concentrations between 0.1 and 10 microM. Together, these data suggest that polyphenols present in Champagne wine may induce a neuroprotective effect against oxidative neuronal injury.

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