17 November 2021 In General Health

BACKGROUND: The association between Parkinson's disease (PD) risk and alcohol intake is a controversial topic.

OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the association between PD risk and alcohol intake.

METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible studies with prospective design on PD risk and alcohol intake. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model and dose-response analysis was performed. Relative risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs were calculated.

RESULTS: Eleven prospective studies were included. Overall, a higher intake of alcohol was inversely associated with PD risk (RR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.95, I (2) = 73.7%). Significant differences existed between the specific types of alcoholic beverages and geographic area. Specifically, a significant association existed for beer (RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.94, I (2) = 0.0%) and studies conducted in Asia (RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.55-0.80, I (2) = 37.3%). Dose-response analysis indicated a nonlinear relationship between PD risk and alcohol exposure. No evidence for publication bias was detected.

CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our meta-analysis suggests that alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of PD, with a nearly U-shaped association. Future studies are warranted to clarify the question of a specific type of alcoholic beverage-dependent association, geographic area effect, and possible threshold effects regarding both the adverse and beneficial effects of alcohol.

27 March 2020 In General Health

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the influence of sex on the effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD).

METHODS: This population-based cohort study examined data of 6,795,816 Koreans aged >/=40 years from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database who completed a national program for general health check-up at 2009. For a maximum 9 years' observation period, incident PD was tracked, and hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using the Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for potential confounding factors for each sex group. We tested interactions on the addictive scale by estimating the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI).

RESULTS: 3,400,538 men and 3,395,278 women generated 24,365,694 and 24,754,154 person-years, respectively. A total of 13,223 men (0.39%) and 14,818 women (0.44%) developed PD during follow-up. Current smoking and alcohol independently reduced the risk of PD in both sexes. Current male smokers tended to have a lower risk of PD than current female smokers at equal smoking intensity (P < 0.0001 for interaction) and duration (P < 0.0001 for interaction). In contrast, at equal alcohol intakes, PD risk tended to be lower in female drinkers than in male drinkers (P < 0.0001 for interaction). A superadditive interaction between smoking and alcohol was found in current male smokers (RERI, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.34; P = 0.015) and female ex-smokers (RERI, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.76; P = 0.014).

CONCLUSION: Our data suggest sex-related differences in individual and joint impacts of smoking and alcohol intake on the risk of PD.

24 January 2020 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake may be associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), but findings from previous studies have been inconclusive.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between alcohol intake and PD risk in the Million Women Study, a large, prospective study of women in the UK.

METHODS: Between 1996 and 2001, approximately 1.3 million women in the UK, mean age 56 (standard deviation, 5) years, were recruited into the Million Women Study. Information on alcohol intake, lifestyle factors, and medical history was collected at recruitment by questionnaire. Information on incident cases of PD was ascertained by record linkage to national hospital admission records and death registrations. We estimated multivariable-adjusted relative risks and corresponding 95% confidence intervals using Cox proportional hazards models according to categories of alcohol intake.

RESULTS: During an average of 17.9 years of follow-up, 11,009 women had a new record of PD among 1,309,267 women. In drinkers, the multivariable-adjusted relative risk comparing women who drank more than 14 drinks of alcohol per week with women who drank 1 to 2 drinks of alcohol per week was 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.10). Results did not materially change after excluding the first 10 years of follow-up (relative riskadjusted = 1.01; 95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.13). There were no significant trends in alcohol-related PD risk among never smokers. Additionally, examining this association by type of alcohol intake also yielded null findings.

CONCLUSION: These results do not support an association between alcohol intake and PD risk in women. (c) 2019 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

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