15 June 2015 In Phenolic compounds

INTRODUCTION: Several studies demonstrated that endothelium dependent vasodilatation is impaired in cardiovascular and chronic kidney diseases because of oxidant stress-induced nitric oxide availability reduction. The Mediterranean diet, which is characterized by food containing phenols, was correlated with a reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases and delayed progression toward end stage chronic renal failure. Previous studies demonstrated that both red and white wine exert cardioprotective effects. In particular, wine contains Caffeic acid (CAF), an active component with known antioxidant activities.

AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of low doses of CAF on oxidative stress-induced endothelial injury.

RESULTS: CAF increased basal as well as acetylcholine-induced NO release by a mechanism independent from eNOS expression and phosphorylation. In addition, low doses of CAF (100 nM and 1 muM) increased proliferation and angiogenesis and inhibited leukocyte adhesion and endothelial cell apoptosis induced by hypoxia or by the uremic toxins ADMA, p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate. The biological effects exerted by CAF on endothelial cells may be at least in part ascribed to modulation of NO release and by decreased ROS production. In an experimental model of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice, CAF significantly decreased tubular cell apoptosis, intraluminal cast deposition and leukocyte infiltration.

CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that CAF, at very low dosages similar to those observed after moderate white wine consumption, may exert a protective effect on endothelial cell function by modulating NO release independently from eNOS expression and phosphorylation. CAF-induced NO modulation may limit cardiovascular and kidney disease progression associated with oxidative stress-mediated endothelial injury.

04 December 2014 In Cardiovascular System

Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as with labour and traffic accidents. However, current evidence suggests beneficial effects of moderate drinking on cardiovascular events including coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease and congestive heart failure. The underlying mechanisms to explain these protective effects against coronary heart disease include an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase in insulin sensitivity, and a decrease in platelet aggregation and circulating concentrations of fibrinogen. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages on the cardiovascular system, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcohol component (ethanol) or non-alcoholic products containing, mainly polyphenols. Recent randomised clinical trials have shown that wine, a polyphenol-rich alcoholic beverage, provides higher antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects than some spirits such as gin, a polyphenol-free alcoholic beverage. In addition, dealcoholized red wine decreases blood pressure through a nitric oxide mediated mechanism, suggesting a protective effect of polyphenols on vascular function. Other studies performed in women have observed that daily doses of 15-20 g of alcohol as red wine are sufficient to elicit protective effects similar to those observed in men who consumed higher doses of wine. In conclusion, moderate consumption of wine exerts a protective effect on biomarkers related to the progression and development of atherosclerosis due to its alcoholic (ethanol) and non-alcoholic (polyphenols) content. Women are more sensitive to the beneficial effects of wine.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

We review evidence for and against the 'red wine hypothesis', whereby red wine is more likely to confer cardiovascular benefits than white. As background, there is a strong epidemiological and mechanistic evidence for J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and total mortality. However, epidemiological data favouring a specific benefit of red over white wine are not strong and the 'French paradox' could at least in part be explained by confounding factors. More convincing evidence is that human studies with de-alcoholized red but not white wine show short-term cardiovascular benefits. The specific components of the de-alcoholized wine that are active on cardiovascular endpoints, are the polyphenols found in red wine, especially resveratrol. The effects of resveratrol on isolated tissues or organs are well-described including molecular mechanisms leading to decreased arterial damage, decreased activity of angiotensin-II, increased nitric oxide, and decreased platelet aggregation. Anti-ischaemic effects include stimulation of prosurvival paths, decreased LDL-oxidation, atheroma, and on the ischaemic-beneficial metabolic changes. Most recently, the agonist effect of resveratrol on the anti-senescence factor sirtuin has lessened cell death in myocytes from failing hearts. Mechanistic feasibility strengthens the case for prospective therapeutic trials of alcohol vs. red wine vs. resveratrol, for example in those with heart failure.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

RATIONALE: Experimental studies have shown a potential blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of red wine polyphenols, whereas the effects of ethanol and polyphenols on BP in humans are not yet clear.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of red wine fractions (alcoholic and nonalcoholic) on BP and plasma nitric oxide (NO) in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-seven men at high cardiovascular risk were studied. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomized into 3 treatment periods in a crossover clinical trial, with a common background diet plus red wine (30g alcohol/day), the equivalent amount of dealcoholized red wine, or gin (30g alcohol/day), lasting 4 weeks each intervention. At baseline and after each intervention, anthropometrical parameters, BP and plasma NO were measured. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly after the dealcoholized red wine intervention and these changes correlated with increases in plasma NO.

CONCLUSIONS: Dealcoholized red wine decreases systolic and diastolic BP. Our results point out through an NO-mediated mechanism. The daily consumption of dealcoholized red wine could be useful for the prevention of low to moderate hypertension.

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