28 September 2023 In Cancer
BACKGROUND: The impact of alcohol consumption on breast cancer (BC) prognosis remains unclear. METHODS: The authors examined short-term alcohol intake in relation to recurrence and mortality in 3659 women who were diagnosed with stage I-IV BC from 2003 to 2015 in the Pathways Study. Alcohol drinking in the past 6 months was assessed at cohort entry (mean, 2 months postdiagnosis) and 6 months later using a food-frequency questionnaire. Study end points were recurrence and death from BC, cardiovascular disease, and all causes. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Over an average follow-up of 11.2 years, 524 recurrences and 834 deaths (369 BC-specific and 314 cardiovascular disease-specific) occurred. Compared with nondrinkers (36.9%), drinkers were more likely younger, more educated, and current or past smokers. Overall, alcohol consumption was not associated with recurrence or mortality. However, women with higher body mass index (BMI >/= 30 kg/m(2) ) had lower risk of overall mortality with increasing alcohol consumption for occasional drinking (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54-0.94) and regular drinking (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.56-1.08) around the time of diagnosis, along with 6 months later, in a dose-response manner (p < .05). Women with lower BMI (<30 kg/m(2) ) were not at higher risk of mortality but were at possibly higher, yet nonsignificant, risk of recurrence for occasional drinking (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.97-1.71) and regular drinking (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.88-1.62). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol drinking around the time of and up to 6 months after BC diagnosis was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality in obese women. A possible higher risk of recurrence was observed in nonobese women.
28 September 2023 In General Health

BACKGROUND: In this study, we examined the effect of alcohol, as well as the combined effect of seven lifestyle factors, on all-cause mortality in older adults (baseline age 70 years).

METHODS: Data was derived from the population-based Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort study, including 1124 participants from the 2014-16 examination. Risk consumption was defined as > 98 g alcohol per week, and hazardous drinking was based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C). Cox regression models were used to examine the individual effect of alcohol consumption, as well as the combined effect of seven lifestyle risk factors (high alcohol consumption, lifetime smoking, unhealthy Body Mass Index, insufficient physical activity, sedentary behavior, insufficient/prolonged sleep, unhealthy dietary pattern) on all-cause mortality.

RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 7.7 years, 81 (7.2%) participants died. Neither risk consumption nor hazardous drinking were associated with elevated mortality, but hazardous drinking was associated with an increased risk of mortality in those with insufficient physical activity. Those with at least five lifestyle risk factors had an increased all-cause mortality compared to those fulfilling criteria for a maximum of one lifestyle risk factor. High alcohol consumption showed a relatively minor impact on this risk, while physical activity and unhealthy dietary pattern had an independent effect on mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: In this particular sample, there was no independent effect of alcohol on the risk of 8-year all-cause mortality. However, an interaction effect of physical activity was observed. It may be that high alcohol consumption per se is less important for mortality among older adults. However, a combination of several unhealthy lifestyle behaviors was linked to a substantial increase in the risk of mortality in Swedish older adults. Also, it has to be emphasized that high alcohol consumption may have other adverse health effects apart from mortality among older adults.

18 August 2023 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown inconsistent findings regarding the association of light to moderate alcohol consumption with cause-specific mortality. Therefore, this study sought to examine the prospective association of alcohol consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the US population.

METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study of adults aged 18 years or older in the National Health Interview Survey (1997 to 2014) with linkage to the National Death Index records through December 31, 2019. Self-reported alcohol consumption was categorized into seven groups (lifetime abstainers; former infrequent or regular drinkers; and current infrequent, light, moderate, or heavy drinkers). The main outcome was all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 12.65 years, among the 918,529 participants (mean age 46.1 years; 48.0% male), 141,512 adults died from all causes, 43,979 from cardiovascular disease (CVD), 33,222 from cancer, 8246 from chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, 5572 from accidents (unintentional injuries), 4776 from Alzheimer's disease, 4845 from diabetes mellitus, 2815 from influenza and pneumonia, and 2692 from nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, or nephrosis. Compared with lifetime abstainers, current infrequent, light, or moderate drinkers were at a lower risk of mortality from all causes [infrequent-hazard ratio: 0.87; 95% confidence interval: 0.84 to 0.90; light: 0.77; 0.75 to 0.79; moderate 0.82; 0.80 to 0.85], CVD, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and influenza and pneumonia. Also, light or moderate drinkers were associated with lower risk of mortality from diabetes mellitus and nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, or nephrosis. In contrast, heavy drinkers had a significantly higher risk of mortality from all causes, cancer, and accidents (unintentional injuries). Furthermore, binge drinking >/= 1 day/week was associated with a higher risk of mortality from all causes (1.15; 1.09 to 1.22), cancer (1.22; 1.10 to 1.35), and accidents (unintentional injuries) (1.39; 1.11 to 1.74).

CONCLUSIONS: Infrequent, light, and moderate alcohol consumption were inversely associated with mortality from all causes, CVD, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and influenza and pneumonia. Light or moderate alcohol consumption might also have a beneficial effect on mortality from diabetes mellitus and nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, or nephrosis. However, heavy or binge had a higher risk of all-cause, cancer, and accidents (unintentional injuries) mortality.

23 February 2023 In Drinking Patterns

BACKGROUND: Based on findings of increasing alcohol consumption in older adults, it is important to clarify the health consequences. Using data from the Tromsø study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between different levels of alcohol consumption in old adulthood and self-rated health trajectories and all-cause mortality. METHODS: This is an epidemiological study utilizing repeated measures from the Tromsø study cohort. It allows follow-up of participants from 1994 to 2020.

A total of 24,590 observations of alcohol consumption were made in older adults aged 60-99 (53% women). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-rated health (SRH) and all-cause mortality. SRH was reported when attending the Tromsø study. Time of death was retrieved from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. The follow-up time extended from the age of study entry to the age of death or end of follow-up on November 25, 2020. PREDICTOR: Average weekly alcohol consumption (non-drinker, < 100 g/week, ≥ 100 g/week). We fitted two-level logistic random effects models to examine how alcohol consumption was related to SRH, and Cox proportional hazards models to examine its relation to all-cause mortality.

Both models were stratified by sex and adjusted for sociodemographic factors, pathology, biometrics, smoking and physical activity. In addition, all the confounders were examined for whether they moderate the relationship between alcohol and the health-related outcomes through interaction analyses. RESULTS: We found that women who consumed ≥ 100 g/week had better SRH than those who consumed < 100 g/week; OR 1.85 (1.46-2.34). This pattern was not found in men OR 1.18 (0.99-1.42). We identified an equal mortality risk in both women and men who exceeded 100 g/week compared with those who consumed less than 100 g/week; HR 0.95 (0.73-1.22) and HR 0.89 (0.77-1.03), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There was no clear evidence of an independent negative effect on either self-rated health trajectories or all-cause mortality for exceeding an average of 100 g/week compared to lower drinking levels in this study with up to 25 years follow-up.

However, some sex-specific risk factors in combination with the highest level of alcohol consumption led to adverse effects on self-rated health. In men it was the use of sleeping pills or tranquilisers and  ≥  20 years of smoking, in women it was physical illness and older age.

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