26 January 2022 In Drinking Patterns

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations of status, amount, and frequency of alcohol consumption across different alcoholic beverages with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) risk and associated mortality.

MANDATE: This study included 473,957 subjects, 16,559 of whom tested positive for COVID-19. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations of alcohol consumption with COVID-19 risk and associated mortality. The non-linearity association between the amount of alcohol consumption and COVID-19 risk was evaluated by a generalized additive model.

RESULTS: Subjects who consumed alcohol double above the guidelines had a higher risk of COVID-19 (1.12 [1.00, 1.25]). Consumption of red wine above or double above the guidelines played protective effects against the COVID-19. Consumption of beer and cider increased the COVID-19 risk, regardless of the frequency and amount of alcohol intake. Low-frequency of consumption of fortified wine (1-2 glasses/week) within guidelines had a protective effect against the COVID-19. High frequency of consumption of spirits (>/=5 glasses/week) within guidelines increased the COVID-19 risk, whereas the high frequency of consumption of white wine and champagne above the guidelines decreased the COVID-19 risk. The generalized additive model showed an increased risk of COVID-19 with a greater number of alcohol consumption. Alcohol drinker status, frequency, amount, and subtypes of alcoholic beverages were not associated with COVID-19 associated mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 risk appears to vary across different alcoholic beverage subtypes, frequency, and amount. Red wine, white wine, and champagne have chances to reduce the risk of COVID-19. Consumption of beer and cider and spirits and heavy drinking are not recommended during the epidemics. Public health guidance should focus on reducing the risk of COVID-19 by advocating healthy lifestyle habits and preferential policies among consumers of beer and cider and spirits.

26 January 2022 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies generally show J-shaped associations between alcohol intake and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Little is known about alcohol and long-term mortality risk after myocardial infarction (MI).

OBJECTIVE: We examined alcohol intake in relation to all-cause, CVD and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in Dutch post-MI patients of the Alpha Omega Cohort.

DESIGN: The analysis comprised 4,365 patients (60-80 y, 79% male) with an MI 0-2 g/d, n = 385), light (M: >2-10, F: >2-5 g/d, n = 1125), moderate (M: >10-30, F: >5-15 g/d, n = 1207) or heavy drinkers (M: >30, F: >15 g/d, n = 692). Hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality for alcohol intake were obtained from Cox models, adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking, BMI, physical activity and dietary factors.

RESULTS: Alcohol was consumed by 83% of males and 61% of females. During approximately 12 y of follow-up, 2,035 deaths occurred of which 903 from CVD and 558 from IHD. Compared to the (combined) reference group of non-drinkers and very light drinkers, HRs (95% CI) for all-cause mortality were 0.87 (0.78, 0.98), 0.85 (0.75, 0.96) and 0.91 (0.79, 1.04) in consecutive drinking categories. For CVD mortality, corresponding HRs were 0.80 (0.67, 0.96), 0.82 (0.69, 0.98) and 0.87 (0.70, 1.08). Findings for IHD mortality were similar. HRs did not materially change when non-drinkers or very light drinkers were taken as the reference, or after exclusion of former drinkers or patients with diabetes or poor/moderate self-rated health.

CONCLUSION: Light and moderate alcohol intake were inversely associated with mortality risk in stable post-MI patients. These observational findings should be cautiously interpreted in light of the total evidence on alcohol and health.Registration: The Alpha Omega Cohort is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03192410.

26 January 2022 In Cancer

Evidence on the impact of diet, alcohol, body-mass index (BMI), and physical activity on mortality due to cancer and other cancer-related outcomes is still scarce. Herein, we reviewed the contribution of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study to the current state of the art on the role of these factors in cancer mortality. We identified 45 studies using a rapid systematic review methodology.

Dietary factors associated with reduced cancer mortality included raw vegetable intake; dietary fiber intake; the Mediterranean diet; other dietary scores; other diet patterns including low meat eaters, vegetarians/vegans, or fish eaters; dietary intake (or biomarkers) of some vitamins (e.g., vitamin D, vitamin K2, or Vitamin C); and intake of lignans. Physical activity and following healthy lifestyle recommendations also reduced cancer mortality risk.

In contrast, dietary factors associated with higher cancer mortality risk included poor diet quality, consumption of alcohol and soft drinks including juice, and, to a lesser extent, intake of some fatty acids. Excess weight and obesity also increased the risk of cancer mortality. The EPIC study holds valuable information on diet and lifestyle factors and offers a unique opportunity to identify key diet-related factors for cancer mortality prevention.

17 November 2021 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: We investigated the association of alcohol consumption with cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality in elderly Chinese men.

METHODS: Our participants were recruited from residents living in a suburban town of Shanghai (>/=60 years of age, n = 1702). Alcohol intake was classified as non-drinkers, past drinkers (stopped drinking for >/=12 months), and current light-to-moderate (1 to 299 g/week) and heavy drinkers (>/=300 g/week). Alcoholic beverages were classified as beer/wine, rice aperitif and liquor/mix drinking.

RESULTS: During 5.9 years (median) of follow-up, all-cause, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular deaths occurred in 211, 98 and 113 participants, respectively. The corresponding incidence rates were 23.6/1000, 10.9/1000 and 12.6/1000 person-years, respectively. Both before and after adjustment for confounding factors, compared with non-drinkers (n = 843), past drinkers (n = 241), but not the current light-to-moderate (n = 241) or heavy drinkers (n = 377), had a higher risk of all-cause (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-2.68, P = 0.0003) and non-cardiovascular mortality (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.55-3.91, P = 0.0001). Similar trends were observed for cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.44, 95% CI 0.85-2.44, P = 0.18). In similar unadjusted and adjusted analyses, compared with the current beer/wine drinkers (n = 203), liquor/mix drinkers (n = 142), but not aperitif drinkers (n = 273), had a significantly higher risk of all-cause (HR 3.07, 95% CI 1.39-6.79, P = 0.006), and cardiovascular mortality (HR 10.49, 95% CI 2.00-55.22, P = 0.006). Similar trends were observed for non-cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.94, 95% CI 0.73-5.16, P = 0.18).

CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed risks of mortality associated with past drinking and liquor drinking in the elderly Chinese men.

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