26 August 2022 In General Health

AIMS: The Tromso Study 1979-1980 collected information on alcohol (beer, wine and spirits) consumption frequency and inebriation frequency, and the oldest male participants (aged 50-54 years) were followed for all-cause mortality. This study aimed to identify the impact of habitual alcohol consumption in mid-life on reaching up to 90 years of age.

RESULTS: Among the study sample of 778, a total of 120 (15.4%) men reached the age of 90. The most common reported alcohol consumption frequency was 'never or a few times a year', and 18.9% of those in this group reached 90 compared with 11.9% of those who reported a more frequent beer consumption. Fifty per cent survival in these groups was 80.5 and 76.9 years, respectively. The pattern was similar for spirits consumption and for inebriation but not for wine consumption. Number of deaths increased gradually with increasing beer and spirits consumption frequency and with inebriation frequency. We observed no J-shape or pattern that revealed a beneficial influence of light alcohol consumption. Daily smoking, physical inactivity, marital status, blood pressure and total cholesterol reduced the contribution of alcohol consumption to a small degree.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that all beer and spirits consumption frequencies in mid-life affect later life and total lifespan. Refraining from alcohol consumption or drinking only a few times a year increases one's chances of living longer, and the chance of reaching 90 years of age is 1.6-fold higher than in those with more frequent alcohol consumption.

15 June 2022 In Cancer

PURPOSE: To investigate how a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) is associated with breast cancer risk and survival in a population-based breast cancer study.

METHODS: The study included 1319 breast cancer cases and 1310 controls from the population-based Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project and its follow-up study where vital status was ascertained using the National Death Index (521 deaths, 210 from breast cancer; median follow-up 214.5 months). HLI scores were generated from body mass index, physical activity, intake of plant and animal foods, alcohol consumption, breastfeeding, and smoking, with higher values corresponding to healthier behaviors obtained from baseline questionnaire. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression models were used to estimate breast cancer odds ratios (ORs) and mortality hazards ratios (HRs), respectively.

RESULTS: Compared to women in the low HLI tertile, a significant reduction in risk of breast cancer was observed for women in the intermediate (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.93) and high (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.60-0.88) tertiles; a one-point increase in HLI score was associated with a 14% reduction in breast cancer risk (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.80-0.93). For survival, a significant reduction in all-cause mortality was also observed in women in the intermediate (HR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.56-0.84) and high (HR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.58-0.88) HLI tertiles with a 17% reduction in all-cause mortality (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.91) for one-point increase in HLI score. These inverse associations were more prominent among postmenopausal women.

CONCLUSION: A healthy lifestyle is beneficial not only in reducing breast cancer risk but also in improving overall survival after breast cancer diagnosis, especially among postmenopausal women.

28 April 2022 In General Health

Data are conflicting about the effects of alcohol intake on kidney function. This population-based study investigated associations of alcohol intake with kidney function and mortality. The study cohort included adult participants in Exam-1, Exam-2 (6-year follow-up), and Exam-3 (20-year follow-up) of the Gubbio study.

Kidney function was evaluated as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, CKD-Epi equation, mL/min x 1.73 m(2)). Daily habitual alcohol intake was assessed by questionnaires. Wine intake accounted for >94% of total alcohol intake at all exams. Alcohol intake significantly tracked over time (R > 0.66, p < 0.001). Alcohol intake distribution was skewed at all exams (skewness > 2) and was divided into four strata for analyses (g/day = 0, 1-24, 25-48, and >48). Strata of alcohol intake differed substantially for lab markers of alcohol intake (p < 0.001).

In multivariable regression, strata of alcohol intake related cross-sectionally to eGFR at all exams (Exam-1: B = 1.70, p < 0.001; Exam-2: B = 1.03, p < 0.001; Exam-3: B = 0.55, p = 0.010) and related longitudinally to less negative eGFR change from Exam-1 to Exam-2 (B = 0.133, p = 0.002) and from Exam-2 to Exam-3 (B = 0.065, p = 0.004). In multivariable Cox models, compared to no intake, intakes > 24 g/day were not associated with different mortality while an intake of 1-24 g/day was associated with lower mortality in the whole cohort (HR = 0.77, p = 0.003) and in the subgroup with eGFR < 60 mL/min x 1.73 m(2) (HR = 0.69, p = 0.033). These data indicate a positive independent association of alcohol intake with kidney function not due to a mortality-related selection.

28 April 2022 In Drinking Patterns

The present study examines how alcohol intake from wine and non-wine alcoholic beverages (non-wine) in g/d, as well as cups of coffee and tea included as continuous covariates and mutually adjusted are associated with all-cause, cancer, non-cancer and CVD mortality. Consumption was assessed in 354 386 participants of the UK Biobank cohort who drank alcohol at least occasionally and survived at least 2 years after baseline with 20 201 deaths occurring over 4.2 million person-years. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality were assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression models and beverage intake fitted as penalised cubic splines.

A significant U-shaped association was detected between wine consumption and all-cause, non-cancer and CVD mortality. Wine consumption with lowest risk of death (nadir) ranged from 19 to 23 g alcohol/d in all participants and both sexes separately. In contrast, non-wine intake was significantly and positively associated in a dose-dependent manner with all mortality types studied except for CVD in females and with the nadir between 0 and 12 g alcohol/d.

In all participants, the nadir for all-cause mortality was 2 cups coffee/d with non-coffee drinkers showing a slightly increased risk of death. Tea consumption was significantly and negatively associated with all mortality types in both sexes. Taken together, light to moderate consumption of wine but not non-wine is associated with decreased all-cause and non-cancer mortality. A minor negative association of coffee consumption with mortality cannot be excluded whereas tea intake is associated with a consistently decreased risk of all mortality types studied.

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