25 January 2023 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota profiles are closely related to cardiovascular diseases through mechanisms that include the reported deleterious effects of metabolites, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which have been studied as diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Moderate red wine (RW) consumption is reportedly cardioprotective, possibly by affecting the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of RW consumption on the gut microbiota, plasma TMAO, and the plasma metabolome in men with documented coronary artery disease (CAD) using a multiomics assessment in a crossover trial. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, crossover, controlled trial involving 42 men (average age, 60 y) with documented CAD comparing 3-wk RW consumption (250 mL/d, 5 d/wk) with an equal period of alcohol abstention, both preceded by a 2-wk washout period. The gut microbiota was analyzed via 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. Plasma TMAO was evaluated by LC-MS/MS. The plasma metabolome of 20 randomly selected participants was evaluated by ultra-high-performance LC-MS/MS. The effect of RW consumption was assessed by individual comparisons using paired tests during the abstention and RW periods. RESULTS: Plasma TMAO did not differ between RW intervention and alcohol abstention, and TMAO concentrations showed low intraindividual concordance over time, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.049 during the control period. After RW consumption, there was significant remodeling of the gut microbiota, with a difference in beta diversity and predominance of Parasutterella, Ruminococcaceae, several Bacteroides species, and Prevotella. Plasma metabolomic analysis revealed significant changes in metabolites after RW consumption, consistent with improved redox homeostasis.

ONCLUSIONS: Modulation of the gut microbiota may contribute to the putative cardiovascular benefits of moderate RW consumption. The low intraindividual concordance of TMAO presents challenges regarding its role as a cardiovascular risk biomarker at the individual level. This study was registered at clinical trials.gov as NCT03232099.

25 January 2023 In Drinking Patterns
BACKGROUND: Most of the available epidemiological evidence on alcohol and chronic disease agrees on recommending alcohol abstention to young people, but some controversy exists about the most appropriate recommendation for alcohol abstention for people of older ages. A growing body of evidence suggests that the pattern of alcohol consumption is likely to be a strong effect modifier. The Mediterranean Alcohol Drinking Pattern (MADP) represents a score integrating several dimensions of drinking patterns (moderation, preference for red wine, drinking with meals, and avoiding binge drinking). Our aim was to clarify this issue and provide more precise recommendations on alcohol consumption. METHODS: We prospectively followed-up 2226 participants (men older than 50 years and women older than 55 years at baseline) in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort. We classified participants into three categories of adherence to the MADP score (low, moderate, and high), and we added a fourth category for abstainers. Cox regression models estimated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of all-cause death and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using low MADP adherence as the reference category. RESULTS: The strongest reduction in risk of mortality was observed for those with high adherence to the MADP, with an HR of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.37-0.80). The moderate adherence group (HR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.96) and the abstention group (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98) also exhibited lower risks of mortality than the low MADP adherence group. CONCLUSIONS: based on the available evidence, a public health message can be provided to people older than 50 years as follows: among those who drink alcohol, high adherence to the MADP score could substantially reduce their risk of all-cause mortality.
23 November 2022 In Drinking Patterns

Although excessive alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent public health problem the data on the associations between alcohol consumption and health outcomes in individuals preferring different types of alcoholic beverages has remained unclear. We examined the relationships between the amounts and patterns of drinking with the data on laboratory indices of liver function, lipid status and inflammation in a national population-based health survey (FINRISK). Data on health status, alcohol drinking, types of alcoholic beverages preferred, body weight, smoking, coffee consumption and physical activity were recorded from 22,432 subjects (10,626 men, 11,806 women), age range 25-74 years. The participants were divided to subgroups based on the amounts of regular alcohol intake (abstainers, moderate and heavy drinkers), patterns of drinking (binge or regular) and the type of alcoholic beverage preferred (wine, beer, cider or long drink, hard liquor or mixed). Regular drinking was found to be more typical in wine drinkers whereas the subjects preferring beer or hard liquor were more often binge-type drinkers and cigarette smokers. Alcohol use in all forms was associated with increased frequencies of abnormalities in the markers of liver function, lipid status and inflammation even at rather low levels of consumption. The highest rates of abnormalities occurred, however, in the subgroups of binge-type drinkers preferring beer or hard liquor. These results demonstrate that adverse consequences of alcohol occur even at moderate average drinking levels especially in individuals who engage in binge drinking and in those preferring beer or hard liquor. Further emphasis should be placed on such patterns of drinking in policies aimed at preventing alcohol-induced adverse health outcomes.

23 November 2022 In Dementia

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on associations of alcohol use with memory decline showed inconclusive results. We examined these associations using longitudinal data from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS) and explored whether these associations varied by sex and age group.

METHODS: Memory function was assessed by delayed 10-word recall test (DWRT) and immediate 10-word recall test (IWRT) at both baseline (2003-2008) and follow-up (2008-2012) examinations, expressed as the mean annual change and mean annual rate of change in scores. Memory cognitive impairment was defined by DWRT scores of less than 4. Multivariable linear regression models and restricted cubic spline were used for data analysis.

RESULTS: Of 14,827 participants without memory cognitive impairment at baseline, 90.2% were never or occasional drinkers, 5% moderate drinkers, 1.5% excessive drinkers, and 3.3% former drinkers. The mean (standard deviation) age was 60.6 (6.6) years old. During an average of 4.1 years follow-up, 1000 (6.7%) participants developed memory cognitive impairment. After adjusting for confounders, compared with never or occasional drinkers, moderate and excessive drinkers had significant decline in DWRT scores (beta, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.04 (-0.08 to -0.01), and - 0.07 (-0.14 to 0.01), respectively), and IWRT scores (beta, 95% CI = -0.10 (-0.19 to -0.01), and - 0.15 (-0.30 to 0.01), respectively) annually. With respect to the mean annual rate of change, moderate and excessive drinkers also showed greater decline in DWRT scores (beta, 95% CI = -1.02% (-1.87% to -0.16%), and - 1.64% (-3.14% to -0.14%), respectively). The associations did not vary by sex and age group (all P values for interaction >/= 0.10).

CONCLUSION: Compared to never or occasional alcohol use, moderate and excessive alcohol users had greater memory decline and the associations did not vary by sex and age group.

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