23 November 2022 In Pregnant Women

BACKGROUND: This hypothesis-testing study evaluated the relationship between fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and neurodevelopmental disorder (ND) diagnoses within the Independent Healthcare Research Database (IHRD).

METHODS: De-identified eligibility and claim healthcare records prospectively generated from the 1990-2012 Florida Medicaid system were analyzed using SAS software. There were 89,766 children continuously eligible with >/=10 outpatient office visits during the 120 month period following birth in the cohort examined. A total of 321 children were diagnosed with FAS. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 922), tics (n = 551), attention deficit disorder/attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) (n = 20,260), mental retardation (MR) (n = 915), and specific delays in development (SDD) (n = 24,630) incidence rates were examined using frequency risk ratio (RR) and logistic regression models.

RESULTS: The incidence rate of tics (RR = 5.68), ADD/ADHD (RR = 2.30), MR (RR = 7.83), SDD (RR = 2.88), and ASD (RR = 6.74) were significantly increased among FAS diagnosed children as compared to undiagnosed children. Adjusted (for gender, race, residency, and date of birth) odds ratios (ORs) were significantly increased for tics (OR = 4.87), ADD/ADHD (OR = 3.40), MR (OR = 7.91), SDD (OR = 9.56), and ASD (OR = 6.87) when comparing the FAS diagnosed children to undiagnosed children.

CONCLUSION: Tens of thousands of American children with lifetime costs in the billions of US dollars were estimated to be impacted by FAS-associated NDs. These impacts are particularly tragic because FAS is dependent upon lifestyle.

23 November 2022 In Dementia

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on associations of alcohol use with memory decline showed inconclusive results. We examined these associations using longitudinal data from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS) and explored whether these associations varied by sex and age group.

METHODS: Memory function was assessed by delayed 10-word recall test (DWRT) and immediate 10-word recall test (IWRT) at both baseline (2003-2008) and follow-up (2008-2012) examinations, expressed as the mean annual change and mean annual rate of change in scores. Memory cognitive impairment was defined by DWRT scores of less than 4. Multivariable linear regression models and restricted cubic spline were used for data analysis.

RESULTS: Of 14,827 participants without memory cognitive impairment at baseline, 90.2% were never or occasional drinkers, 5% moderate drinkers, 1.5% excessive drinkers, and 3.3% former drinkers. The mean (standard deviation) age was 60.6 (6.6) years old. During an average of 4.1 years follow-up, 1000 (6.7%) participants developed memory cognitive impairment. After adjusting for confounders, compared with never or occasional drinkers, moderate and excessive drinkers had significant decline in DWRT scores (beta, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.04 (-0.08 to -0.01), and - 0.07 (-0.14 to 0.01), respectively), and IWRT scores (beta, 95% CI = -0.10 (-0.19 to -0.01), and - 0.15 (-0.30 to 0.01), respectively) annually. With respect to the mean annual rate of change, moderate and excessive drinkers also showed greater decline in DWRT scores (beta, 95% CI = -1.02% (-1.87% to -0.16%), and - 1.64% (-3.14% to -0.14%), respectively). The associations did not vary by sex and age group (all P values for interaction >/= 0.10).

CONCLUSION: Compared to never or occasional alcohol use, moderate and excessive alcohol users had greater memory decline and the associations did not vary by sex and age group.

22 September 2022 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Previous studies exploring usual alcohol consumption and falls risk were scarce in China. In addition, the dose-response relationship has not been explored so far. This study aims to estimate the association between usual alcohol consumption and risk of falls among middle-aged and older Chinese adults based on data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), which is representative of the population of the entire country.

METHODS: Baseline survey data in 2015 and follow-up data in 2018 in CHARLS were utilized. Alcohol consumption was calculated in grams per day (gr/day) according to self-reported drinking data and categorized accordingly to The Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (DGC) 2016. Fall was obtained from self-reported information. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the association of usual alcohol consumption with risk of falling. The dose-response relationship was also explored using restricted cubic splines.

RESULTS: A total of 12,910 middle-aged and older participants were included from the CHARLS 2015, of which 11,667 were followed up in 2018. We found that former, moderate, and excessive drinkers were at higher fall risk compared to never drinkers (former: OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05-1.46; moderate: OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.41; excessive: OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.15-1.61) in the longitudinal analysis. Similarly, individuals with moderate and excessive alcohol consumption were at increased risk of falling in the cross-sectional analysis (moderate: OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02-1.37; excessive: OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.11,1.57). No significant increased risk of falls was found for former drinkers (former: OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.96-1.34). We observed a significant non-linear relationship.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that usual alcohol consumption was associated with a higher risk of falls, highlighting the key role of alcohol intake on the fall risk, which needed consideration in developing intervention and prevention strategies for reducing falls among middle-aged and older Chinese adults.

15 June 2022 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Risk genes linked to the development of gout have been identified, and lifestyle factors are related to gout risk. It remains unclear whether healthy lifestyle factors can mitigate the genetic risk of gout. Therefore, we aimed to explore whether and to what extent a healthy lifestyle can mitigate the risk of gout related to genetic factors.

METHODS: Within the UK Biobank, 416,481 gout-free participants (aged 37-74) were identified at baseline. Polygenic risk for gout was assessed and categorized as low (lowest tertile), middle (tertile 2), and high (highest tertile). Healthy lifestyle factors included no/moderate alcohol consumption, no smoking, physical activity, and a healthy diet. Participants were categorized into three groups according to their number of healthy lifestyle factors: unfavorable (0 or 1), intermediate (any 2), and favorable (3 or 4). Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models.

RESULTS: Over the follow-up (median: 12.1 years), 6206 participants developed gout. Compared to low genetic risk, the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of gout was 1.44 (1.35-1.54) for middle and 1.77 (1.66-1.89) for high genetic risk. The HRs (95% CIs) of gout were 0.63 (0.59-0.67) for a favorable lifestyle and 0.79 (0.75-0.85) for an intermediate lifestyle, compared to an unfavorable lifestyle. In joint effect analysis, compared to participants with low genetic predisposition and a favorable lifestyle, the HRs (95% CIs) of gout were 2.39 (2.12-2.70)/3.12 (2.79-3.52) in those with middle and high genetic predisposition plus unfavorable lifestyle profiles, and 1.53 (1.35-1.74)/1.98 (1.75-2.24) for those with middle and high genetic predisposition plus favorable lifestyle profiles, respectively. Moreover, compared to an unfavorable lifestyle, the HRs of gout related to a favorable lifestyle was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.56-0.73) for low genetic risk, 0.65 (95% CI, 0.58-0.72) for middle genetic risk, and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.57-0.69) for high genetic risk. There was a significant additive interaction between unfavorable lifestyle and high genetic risk on gout.

CONCLUSIONS: Healthy lifestyle was associated with a lower risk of gout and may attenuate the risk of gout related to genetic factors by almost a third.

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