25 August 2020 In Phenolic compounds

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the effect of dietary polyphenols on the complex human gut microbiota, and they focused mainly on single polyphenol molecules and select bacterial populations.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of a moderate intake of red wine polyphenols on select gut microbial groups implicated in host health benefits.

DESIGN: Ten healthy male volunteers underwent a randomized, crossover, controlled intervention study. After a washout period, all of the subjects received red wine, the equivalent amount of de-alcoholized red wine, or gin for 20 d each. Total fecal DNA was submitted to polymerase chain reaction(PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time quantitative PCR to monitor and quantify changes in fecal microbiota. Several biochemical markers were measured.

RESULTS: The dominant bacterial composition did not remain constant over the different intake periods. Compared with baseline, the daily consumption of red wine polyphenol for 4 wk significantly increased the number of Enterococcus, Prevotella, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides uniformis, Eggerthella lenta, and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale groups (P < 0.05). In parallel, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and C-reactive protein concentrations decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Moreover, changes in cholesterol and C-reactive protein concentrations were linked to changes in the bifidobacteria number.

CONCLUSION: This study showed that red wine consumption can significantly modulate the growth of select gut microbiota in humans, which suggests possible prebiotic benefits associated with the inclusion of red wine polyphenols in the diet. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN88720134

27 January 2016 In Dementia
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and mortality in patients recently diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: A post hoc analysis study based on a clinical trial population. SETTING: The data reported were collected as part of the Danish Alzheimer's Intervention Study (DAISY), a longitudinal multicentre randomised controlled study on the efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild AD across five county districts in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 321 patients with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination >/=20) were included. Data regarding current daily alcohol consumption were obtained from the patient's primary caregivers at inclusion. MAIN OUTCOME: All-cause mortality retrieved from The Danish Civil Registration System over a period of 36 months after baseline. RESULTS: Information about alcohol consumption was obtained from all 321 study participants: 8% were abstinent, 71% only had alcohol occasionally (1 or
28 August 2015 In Cardiovascular System

Alcohol has been consistently demonstrated to elevate blood pressure (BP) in intervention studies in men. There are uncertainties, however, as to the nature of the relationship in women. We, therefore, determined in healthy premenopausal women the dose-dependent effects of alcohol on ambulatory BP. Twenty-four participants aged 25 to 49 years, with a mean alcohol intake of 202+/-94 g alcohol/wk and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic BP of 110.2+/-8.9/68.9+/-5.7 mm Hg, were randomized to a 3-period cross-over study. Each evening they consumed higher volume red wine (lower level drinkers, 146 g alcohol/wk; higher level drinkers, 218 g alcohol/wk), lower volume red wine (lower level drinkers, 42 g alcohol/wk; higher level drinkers, 73 g alcohol/wk), or dealcoholized red wine, each for a period of 4 weeks. Higher volume red wine significantly increased 24 hours systolic and diastolic BP relative to dealcoholized red wine (by 2.0+/-0.6/1.2+/-0.4 mm Hg; P=0.001 and P=0.028, respectively). There were similar changes for higher volume red wine relative to lower volume red wine (by 1.6+/-0.6/1.4+/-0.4 mm Hg; P=0.014 and P=0.005, respectively). These effects were predominantly on awake rather than asleep BP. There was no significant difference in BP between lower volume red wine and dealcoholized red wine. We conclude that in healthy premenopausal women regular consumption of alcohol as 200 to 300 mL red wine/d (146-218 g alcohol/wk) elevates 24 hours systolic and diastolic BP. The magnitude of the increase in BP is similar to that previously reported in intervention studies in men.

15 June 2015 In Phenolic compounds

Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others) seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33). It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1) UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis); and (2) UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis). Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota.

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