28 April 2022 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: It is unclear if cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with thyroid cancer risk. Our aim was to explore for any associations between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with thyroid cancer, after adjusting for potential confounders.

METHODS: Using data from the Korean National Health Insurance database, we retrospectively identified individuals aged ≥20 years who participated in the 2009 health screening program and were followed until 2017. We estimated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for the risk of thyroid cancer using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusted for age, sex, regular exercise, monthly income, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia.

RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 8.33 ± 0.57 years, of 9,699,104 participants, 89,527 (0.9%) were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Compared with those who never smoked, current smokers had a lower risk of thyroid cancer (aHR: 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.72-0.76), while ex-smokers did not (aHR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.96-1.01). There was no significant dose-response relationship with regard to daily amount smoked, duration of smoking, or pack-years. A reduced risk of thyroid cancer was observed in subjects who reported the following categories of alcohol intake (compared with none): mild (aHR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.90-0.93), moderate (aHR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.84-0.89), and heavy (aHR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.82-0.89). Inverse associations with thyroid cancer risk were observed regarding the number of drinking episodes per week and the number of drinks per occasion. A submultiplicative effect of smoking and alcohol consumption was observed (p-interaction <0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: We observed that thyroid cancer risk was inversely associated with smoking and alcohol consumption, with a significant interaction between these variables.

25 August 2020 In General Health

PURPOSE: The health benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been widely studied. However, controversy remains for one of its components: alcohol intake. We aimed to assess the joint effect of adherence to the MedDiet and alcohol-drinking pattern on all-cause mortality.

METHODS: We used data from 20,506 subjects from a prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort. Adherence to the MedDiet was operationalized using four different dietary indexes and then categorized in low or high adherence, according to the median score. Alcohol-drinking pattern was evaluated with the previously defined the Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern (MADP), grouped into three categories of adherence (low, moderate and high adherence) and a fourth category for abstainers. The outcome was all-cause mortality.

RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 12.1 years, we observed 460 deaths. No statistically significant supra-multiplicative interaction between the two exposures was found. Low adherence to both the MedDiet and MADP was associated with higher all-cause mortality compared to high adherence to both exposures [multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-3.07]. Similar results were found for cancer mortality and cardiovascular mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Although the combined effect of the MedDiet and MADP was not significantly higher than the product of their individual effects, a low adherence to both the MedDiet and MADP was associated with higher rates of all-cause mortality. This report also shows the usefulness of the dietary pattern approach applied to alcohol intake and of including the drinking pattern as another component of the MedDiet.

25 August 2020 In Drinking Patterns

PURPOSE: The health benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been widely studied. However, controversy remains for one of its components: alcohol intake. We aimed to assess the joint effect of adherence to the MedDiet and alcohol-drinking pattern on all-cause mortality.

METHODS: We used data from 20,506 subjects from a prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort. Adherence to the MedDiet was operationalized using four different dietary indexes and then categorized in low or high adherence, according to the median score. Alcohol-drinking pattern was evaluated with the previously defined the Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern (MADP), grouped into three categories of adherence (low, moderate and high adherence) and a fourth category for abstainers. The outcome was all-cause mortality.

RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 12.1 years, we observed 460 deaths. No statistically significant supra-multiplicative interaction between the two exposures was found. Low adherence to both the MedDiet and MADP was associated with higher all-cause mortality compared to high adherence to both exposures [multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-3.07]. Similar results were found for cancer mortality and cardiovascular mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Although the combined effect of the MedDiet and MADP was not significantly higher than the product of their individual effects, a low adherence to both the MedDiet and MADP was associated with higher rates of all-cause mortality. This report also shows the usefulness of the dietary pattern approach applied to alcohol intake and of including the drinking pattern as another component of the MedDiet.

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