25 January 2023 In Phenolic compounds

Background: Resveratrol is a polyphenol chemical that naturally occurs in many plant-based dietary products, most notably, red wine. Discovered in 1939, widespread interest in the potential health benefits of resveratrol emerged in the 1970s in response to epidemiological data on the cardioprotective effects of wine. Objective: To explore the background of resveratrol (including its origins, stability, and metabolism), the metabolic effects of resveratrol and its mechanisms of action, and a potential future role of dietary resveratrol in the lifestyle management of obesity.

Data sources: We performed a narrative review, based on relevant articles written in English from a Pubmed search, using the following search terms: "resveratrol", "obesity", "Diabetes Mellitus", and "insulin sensitivity". Results: Following its ingestion, resveratrol undergoes extensive metabolism. This includes conjugation (with sulfate and glucuronate) within enterocytes, hydrolyzation and reduction within the gut through the action of the microbiota (with the formation of metabolites such as dihydroresveratrol), and enterohepatic circulation via the bile.

Ex vivo studies on adipose tissue reveal that resveratrol inhibits adipogenesis and prevents the accumulation of triglycerides through effects on the expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and sirtuin 1, respectively. Furthermore, resveratrol induces anti-inflammatory effects, supported by data from animal-based studies. Limited data from human-based studies reveal that resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity and fasting glucose levels in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and may improve inflammatory status in human obesity.

Although numerous mechanisms may underlie the metabolic benefits of resveratrol, evidence supports a role in its interaction with the gut microbiota and modulation of protein targets, including sirtuins and proteins related to nitric oxide, insulin, and nuclear hormone receptors (such as PPARgamma). Conclusions: Despite much interest, there remain important unanswered questions regarding its optimal dosage (and how this may differ between and within individuals), and possible benefits within the general population, including the potential for weight-loss and improved metabolic function. Future studies should properly address these important questions before we can advocate the widespread adoption of dietary resveratrol supplementation.

26 January 2022 In Liver Disease

The diagnosis of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease is based on the detection of liver steatosis together with the presence of metabolic dysfunction. According to this new definition, the diagnosis of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease is independent of the amount of alcohol consumed.

Actually, alcohol and its metabolites have various effects on metabolic-associated abnormalities during the process of alcohol metabolism. Studies have shown improved metabolic function in light to moderate alcohol drinkers. There are several studies focusing on the role of light to moderate alcohol intake on metabolic dysfunction.

However, the results from studies are diverse, and the conclusions are often controversial. This review systematically discusses the effects of alcohol consumption, focusing on light to moderate alcohol consumption, obesity, lipid and glucose metabolism, and blood pressure.

13 October 2020 In Phenolic compounds
BACKGROUND: Effects of resveratrol on metabolic health have been studied in several short-term human clinical trials, with conflicting results. Next to dose, the duration of the clinical trials may explain the lack of effect in some studies, but long-term studies are still limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-mo resveratrol supplementation on metabolic health outcome parameters. METHODS: Forty-one overweight men and women (BMI: 27-35 kg/m2; aged 40-70 y) completed the study. In this parallel-group, double-blind clinical trial, participants were randomized to receive either 150 mg/d of resveratrol (n = 20) or placebo (n = 21) for 6 mo. The primary outcome of the study was insulin sensitivity, using the Matsuda index. Secondary outcome measures were intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content, body composition, resting energy metabolism, blood pressure, plasma markers, physical performance, quality of life, and quality of sleep. Postintervention differences between the resveratrol and placebo arms were evaluated by ANCOVA adjusting for corresponding preintervention variables. RESULTS: Preintervention, no differences were observed between the 2 treatment arms. Insulin sensitivity was not affected after 6 mo of resveratrol treatment (adjusted mean Matsuda index: 5.18 +/- 0.35 in the resveratrol arm compared with 5.50 +/- 0.34 in the placebo arm), although there was a significant difference in postintervention glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between the arms (P = 0.007). The adjusted means showed that postintervention HbA1c was lower on resveratrol (35.8 +/- 0.43 mmol/mol) compared with placebo (37.6 +/- 0.44 mmol/mol). No postintervention differences were found in IHL, body composition, blood pressure, energy metabolism, physical performance, or quality of life and sleep between treatment arms. CONCLUSIONS: After 6 mo of resveratrol supplementation, insulin sensitivity was unaffected in the resveratrol arm compared with the placebo arm. Nonetheless, HbA1c was lower in overweight men and women in the resveratrol arm. This trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02565979.
25 August 2020 In Phenolic compounds

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epidemiological data suggest that moderate red wine consumption reduces cardiovascular mortality and the incidence of diabetes. However, whether these effects are due to ethanol or to non-alcoholic components of red wine still remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of red wine, dealcoholized red wine, and gin on glucose metabolism and the lipid profile.

METHODS: Sixty-seven men at high cardiovascular risk were randomized in a crossover trial. After a run-in period, all received each of red wine (30 g alcohol/d), the equivalent amount of dealcoholized red wine, and gin (30 g alcohol/d) for 4 week periods, in a randomized order. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), plasma lipoproteins, apolipoproteins and adipokines were determined at baseline and after each intervention.

RESULTS: Fasting glucose remained constant throughout the study, while mean adjusted plasma insulin and HOMA-IR decreased after red wine and dealcoholized red wine. HDL cholesterol, Apolipoprotein A-I and A-II increased after red wine and gin. Lipoprotein(a) decreased after the red wine intervention.

CONCLUSIONS: These results support a beneficial effect of the non-alcoholic fraction of red wine (mainly polyphenols) on insulin resistance, conferring greater protective effects on cardiovascular disease to red wine than other alcoholic beverages. www.isrctn.org: ISRCTN88720134.

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