28 September 2023 In Cancer

PURPOSE: Studies have shown an inverse association between alcohol consumption and kidney cancer risk. We postulate that this inverse association may be further influenced by other risk factors.

METHODS: We used an Australian cohort, the 45 and Up Study, recruited between 2005 and 2009 to investigate the association between alcohol consumption, and other potential risk factors and kidney cancer incidence. The median follow-up was 5.4 years.

RESULTS: Of the 267,357 participants aged </=45 years living in New South Wales, 497 were diagnosed with kidney cancer. There was a significant inverse association between alcohol consumption and risk of kidney cancer (P = .027), and a significant inverse dose-response relationship (P = .011). There was a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and socioeconomic status (P interaction = .001). Participants residing in higher socioeconomic areas (the two most advantaged quintiles) who consumed 8-10 drinks or greater than 10 drinks per week, respectively, had a lower risk of kidney cancer compared to the group who consumed 1-4 drinks per week (hazard ratio (HR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.76, HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.83) with a dose-response trend of HR 0.62 (95% CI 0.42-0.93) per 7 drink increase in weekly alcohol consumption.

CONCLUSIONS: There could be an inverse association between alcohol consumption and risk in those residents in higher socioeconomic areas.

28 September 2023 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risks of certain site-specific cancers and decreased risks of some other cancers. There is, however, little reliable evidence as to whether the alcohol-associated risks for specific cancers are modified by smoking, body mass index (BMI) and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use.

METHODS: In the prospective UK Million Women Study, 1,233,177 postmenopausal women without prior cancer, mean age 56 (SD 5) years, reported their alcohol consumption in median year 1998 (IQR 1998-1999), and were followed by record-linkage for incident cancer. 438,056 women who drank no alcohol or < 1 drink/week were excluded. Cox regression yielded adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 21 cancers by alcohol amount; statistical significance of interactions with smoking, BMI and MHT use was assessed after allowing for multiple testing.

RESULTS: In 795,121 participants, mean consumption was 6.7 (SD 6.4) alcoholic drinks/week. During 17 (SD 5) years of follow-up, 140,203 incident cancers were recorded. There was strong evidence for a substantial association between alcohol intake and risk of upper aero-digestive cancers (oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, oral cavity, pharynx and larynx; RR per 1 drink/day = 1.38 [95% CI 1.31-1.46]). There was also strong evidence for more moderate positive associations with breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancer (RRs per 1 drink/day = 1.12 [1.10-1.14], 1.10 [1.07-1.13], 1.08 [1.02-1.13] respectively), and moderate negative associations with thyroid cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, renal cell carcinoma and multiple myeloma (RRs per 1 drink/day = 0.79 [0.70-0.89], 0.91 [0.86-0.95], 0.88 [0.83-0.94], 0.90 [0.84-0.97] respectively). Significant interactions between alcohol and smoking were seen for upper aero-digestive cancers (RRs per 1 drink/day = 1.66 [1.54-1.79], 1.23 [1.11-1.36], 1.12 [1.01-1.25] in current, past, and never smokers respectively). BMI and MHT did not significantly modify any alcohol-associated risks.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide robust evidence that greater alcohol intake, even within relatively moderate ranges, increases the risk of cancers of the aerodigestive tract, breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancer, and probably decreases the risk of thyroid cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, renal cell carcinoma and multiple myeloma. Associations of alcohol intake with cancer risk were not modified by MHT use, adiposity or smoking, except in the case of upper aero-digestive cancers, where the alcohol-associated risk was largely confined to smokers.

28 September 2023 In General Health

Background The relationship between alcohol consumption and ectopic fat distribution, both known factors for cardiovascular disease, remains understudied. Therefore, we aimed to examine the association between alcohol consumption and ectopic adiposity in adults at risk for cardiovascular disease.

Methods and Results In this cross-sectional analysis, we categorized alcohol intake among participants in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) as follows (drinks/day): 2 (heavy drinking), former drinking, and lifetime abstention. Binge drinking was defined as consuming >/=5 drinks on 1 occasion in the past month. Visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular fat area, pericardial fat volume, and hepatic fat attenuation were measured using noncontrast computed tomography. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined the associations between categories of alcohol consumption and natural log-transformed fat in ectopic depots. We included 6756 MESA participants (62.1+/-10.2 years; 47.2% women), of whom 6734 and 1934 had chest computed tomography (pericardial and hepatic fat) and abdominal computed tomography (subcutaneous, intermuscular, and visceral fat), respectively. In adjusted analysis, heavy drinking, relative to lifetime abstention, was associated with a higher (relative percent difference) pericardial 15.1 [95% CI, 7.1-27.7], hepatic 3.4 [95% CI, 0.1-6.8], visceral 2.5 [95% CI, -10.4 to 17.2], and intermuscular 5.2 [95% CI, -6.6 to 18.4] fat but lower subcutaneous fat -3.5 [95% CI, -15.5 to 10.2]). The associations between alcohol consumption and ectopic adiposity exhibited a J-shaped pattern. Binge drinking, relative to light-to-moderate drinking, was also associated with higher ectopic fat.

Conclusions Alcohol consumption had a J-shaped association with ectopic adiposity. Both heavy alcohol intake and binge alcohol drinking were associated with higher ectopic fat.

28 September 2023 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic widespread pain, as well as anxiety, sadness, and depression. These symptoms are present in most patients and have a negative impact on their daily, family, and social life. The role of neurotransmitters in the pathophysiology of FM has been extensively discussed. The scientific evidence shows that levels of serotonin are decreased in patients with FM. Numerous studies support the beneficial effects that moderate wine consumption has on the body, with cardiovascular, endocrine, bone, and muscle improvements.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to assess whether light consumption of red wine improves the main symptoms of FM.

METHODS: The study consisted of an experimental study with a control group with a total of 60 women diagnosed with FM following the American College of Rheumatology's criteria. The experimental group ingested 15 g of alcohol per day, in the form of red wine, over a period of four weeks. The outcome measures were: the level of pain in tender points, sadness, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. The assessments tools were: tender point graphics, the visual analogue scale (for the assessment of pain and sadness), the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. The measurements were completed before and after the consumption of red wine. In addition, the differences between groups were evaluated in terms of drug consumption in the pre-intervention and follow-up phases.

RESULTS: Statistically significant improvements were obtained in the wine ingestion group for the variables of pain (p = 0.038), tender points (p < 0.001), and anxiety (p = 0.028). An improvement in the mean values was observed in favor of the experimental group for the variables of sadness, depression, and quality of life. The differences observed in the changes seen in the groups that were in favor of the wine ingestion group should not be attributed to the consumption of drugs but to the fact that the experimental group had a light intake of red wine.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this pilot study suggest a potential relationship between alcohol intake through the light consumption of red wine as part of the patients' diet and the improvement of the main symptoms of fibromyalgia. Future studies are necessary to confirm these preliminary data; a bigger sample and a controlled diet should be considered, and the mechanisms through which improvements are achieved should be analyzed.

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