29 January 2023 In Diabetes
BACKGROUND: The influence of overall lifestyle behaviors on diabetic microvascular complications remains unknown. In addition, the potential mediating biomarkers underlying the association is unclear. This study aimed to examine the associations of the combined lifestyle factors with risks of total and individual microvascular complications among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to explore the potential mediation effects of metabolic biomarkers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective cohort study included 15,104 patients with T2D free of macro- and microvascular complications at baseline (2006 to 2010) from the UK Biobank. Healthy lifestyle behaviors included noncurrent smoking, recommended waist circumference, regular physical activity, healthy diet, and moderate alcohol drinking. Outcomes were ascertained using electronic health records. Over a median of 8.1 years of follow-up, 1,296 cases of the composite microvascular complications occurred, including 558 diabetic retinopathy, 625 diabetic kidney disease, and 315 diabetic neuropathy, with some patients having 2 or 3 microvascular complications simultaneously. After multivariable adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, history of hypertension, glycemic control, and medication histories, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for the participants adhering 4 to 5 low-risk lifestyle behaviors versus 0 to 1 were 0.65 (0.46, 0.91) for diabetic retinopathy, 0.43 (0.30, 0.61) for diabetic kidney disease, 0.46 (0.29, 0.74) for diabetic neuropathy, and 0.54 (0.43, 0.68) for the composite outcome (all Ps-trend =0.01). Further, the population-attributable fraction (95% CIs) of diabetic microvascular complications for poor adherence to the overall healthy lifestyle (
15 June 2022 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Risk genes linked to the development of gout have been identified, and lifestyle factors are related to gout risk. It remains unclear whether healthy lifestyle factors can mitigate the genetic risk of gout. Therefore, we aimed to explore whether and to what extent a healthy lifestyle can mitigate the risk of gout related to genetic factors.

METHODS: Within the UK Biobank, 416,481 gout-free participants (aged 37-74) were identified at baseline. Polygenic risk for gout was assessed and categorized as low (lowest tertile), middle (tertile 2), and high (highest tertile). Healthy lifestyle factors included no/moderate alcohol consumption, no smoking, physical activity, and a healthy diet. Participants were categorized into three groups according to their number of healthy lifestyle factors: unfavorable (0 or 1), intermediate (any 2), and favorable (3 or 4). Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models.

RESULTS: Over the follow-up (median: 12.1 years), 6206 participants developed gout. Compared to low genetic risk, the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of gout was 1.44 (1.35-1.54) for middle and 1.77 (1.66-1.89) for high genetic risk. The HRs (95% CIs) of gout were 0.63 (0.59-0.67) for a favorable lifestyle and 0.79 (0.75-0.85) for an intermediate lifestyle, compared to an unfavorable lifestyle. In joint effect analysis, compared to participants with low genetic predisposition and a favorable lifestyle, the HRs (95% CIs) of gout were 2.39 (2.12-2.70)/3.12 (2.79-3.52) in those with middle and high genetic predisposition plus unfavorable lifestyle profiles, and 1.53 (1.35-1.74)/1.98 (1.75-2.24) for those with middle and high genetic predisposition plus favorable lifestyle profiles, respectively. Moreover, compared to an unfavorable lifestyle, the HRs of gout related to a favorable lifestyle was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.56-0.73) for low genetic risk, 0.65 (95% CI, 0.58-0.72) for middle genetic risk, and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.57-0.69) for high genetic risk. There was a significant additive interaction between unfavorable lifestyle and high genetic risk on gout.

CONCLUSIONS: Healthy lifestyle was associated with a lower risk of gout and may attenuate the risk of gout related to genetic factors by almost a third.

22 March 2022 In General Health

BACKGROUND: The relationship between modifiable risk factors, such as diet and lifestyle, and glaucoma remains controversial. We analyse the effect of the Mediterranean lifestyle (ML) on glaucoma incidence in the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) Project.

METHODS: The SUN Healthy Lifestyle Score (SHLS) includes 10 healthy habits: never having smoked, moderate to high physical activity, Mediterranean diet adherence, moderate alcohol consumption, low television exposure, no binge drinking, short afternoon napping, meeting up with friends, working at least 40 h/wk, and low body mass index. The information was collected biennially through self-reported questionnaires. The relationship between new glaucoma cases and the SHLS was assessed by Cox regression using hazard ratios. Crude, multi-adjusted, and sensitivity analyses were performed.

RESULTS: During a median of 12 years of follow-up, 261 (1.42%) new cases of glaucoma were identified among 18,420 participants. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the healthiest SHLS category showed a significantly reduced risk of glaucoma compared to those in the lowest SHLS category (adjusted HR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.28-0.93). For each point added to the SHLS, the risk of glaucoma relatively dropped 5%.

CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to a ML, measured by the SHLS, was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing glaucoma. Based on our study, the ML is a protective factor for glaucoma incidence.

25 August 2020 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We prospectively assessed the association between a healthy lifestyle score (HLS) and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Mediterranean cohort.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed up 11,005 participants initially free of diabetes diagnosis in the "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) cohort. We evaluated the influence of lifestyle-related factors based on a score previously related to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Only one incident case of T2DM was found among those with a baseline BMI 22 kg/m(2). We measured the baseline adherence of a HLS that included: never smoking, physical activity, Mediterranean diet adherence, moderate alcohol consumption, avoidance of binge drinking, low television exposure, taking a short nap, spending time with friends and working hours. Incident cases of T2DM were self-reported by participants and confirmed by a physician. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were fitted to assess the association between HLS and the incidence of T2DM. After a median follow-up of 12 years, 145 incident cases of T2DM were observed. Among participants with a BMI >22 kg/m(2), the highest category of HLS adherence (7-9 points) showed a significant 46% relatively decreased hazard of T2DM compared with the lowest category (0-4 points) (multivariable adjusted HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.99).

CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to a HLS, including some factors not typically studied, may reduce T2DM risk. Preventive efforts should preferentially focus on weight control. However, this score may promote a comprehensive approach to diabetes prevention beyond weight reduction.

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