26 May 2021 In Pregnant Women
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is associated with major birth defects and developmental disabilities. Questionnaires concerning alcohol consumption during pregnancy underestimate alcohol use while the use of a reliable and objective biomarker for alcohol consumption enables more accurate screening. Phosphatidylethanol can detect low levels of alcohol consumption in the previous two weeks. In this study we aimed to biochemically assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption during early pregnancy using phosphatidylethanol in blood and compare this with self-reported alcohol consumption. METHODS: To evaluate biochemically assessed prevalence of alcohol consumption during early pregnancy using phosphatidylethanol levels, we conducted a prospective, cross-sectional, single center study in the largest tertiary hospital of the Netherlands. All adult pregnant women who were under the care of the obstetric department of the Erasmus MC and who underwent routine blood testing at a gestational age of less than 15 weeks were eligible. No specified informed consent was needed. RESULTS: The study was conducted between September 2016 and October 2017. In total, we received 1,002 residual samples of 992 women. After applying in- and exclusion criteria we analyzed 684 samples. Mean gestational age of all included women was 10.3 weeks (SD 1.9). Of these women, 36 (5.3 %) tested positive for phosphatidylethanol, indicating alcohol consumption in the previous two weeks. Of women with a positive phosphatidylethanol test, 89 % (n = 32) did not express alcohol consumption to their obstetric care provider. CONCLUSIONS: One in nineteen women consumed alcohol during early pregnancy with a high percentage not reporting this use to their obstetric care provider. Questioning alcohol consumption by an obstetric care provider did not successfully identify (hazardous) alcohol consumption. Routine screening with phosphatidylethanol in maternal blood can be of added value to identify women who consume alcohol during pregnancy.
13 October 2020 In Phenolic compounds
Polyphenols are antioxidants contained in plants as olive and grape. As part of the Mediterranean diet, they may decrease the risk of cancer, of chronic and neurodegenerative diseases. Alcohol consumption plays a detrimental effect on health, causing tissue damage and disrupting the metabolism of Neurotrophins (NTs). NTs are crucial proteins for the life cycle of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Alcohol abuse elicits changes in NTs levels in the brain and in other target organs, however, it was observed minor damage in animals early exposed to red wine, probably due to the antioxidant effects of polyphenols. Indeed, data show that resveratrol or other polyphenols extracted from the olive can effectively counteract serum free radicals’ formation caused by chronic alcohol intake, contrasting also alcohol-induced NTs liver elevation. The aim of the present review is to update pieces of evidences about the antioxidant properties of polyphenols and their role in counteracting alcohol-induced damage.
24 June 2019 In Pregnant Women

BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) typically is observed among individuals with high prenatal alcohol exposures (PAE), but exposure histories obtained in clinical diagnostic settings are often inaccurate. The present analysis used the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study (LDPS) to assess the potential effects of low-to-moderate average weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on facial features associated with FAS among children 5 years of age.

METHODS: The analysis is a prospective follow-up study of 670 women and their children sampled from the LDPS cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. The 4-Digit Code FAS Facial Photographic Analysis Software was used to measure the magnitude of expression of the 3 diagnostic facial features of FAS from standardized digital photographs. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of presenting with the FAS/partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) facial phenotypes relative to different patterns of prenatal alcohol exposure.

RESULTS: Ten children presented with the FAS/PFAS facial phenotypes. None of the children sampled met the central nervous system (CNS) criteria for FAS or PFAS at age 5 years. All remained at risk for PFAS since some types of CNS dysfunction associated with this diagnosis may only be assessed at older ages. The FAS/PFAS facial phenotypes were 8.5-fold more likely among children exposed to an average of 1 to 4 drinks/wk and 2.5-fold more likely among children with a single binge exposure in gestational weeks 3 to 4 compared to children with no such exposures. The magnitude of expression of the FAS facial phenotype was significantly correlated with all other diagnostic features of FAS: growth deficiency, microcephaly, and measures of CNS dysfunction.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that low-to-moderate levels of PAE or isolated binge exposures may place some fetuses at risk for FAS/PFAS. Thus, conservative advice is still for women to abstain from alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

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