13 October 2020 In Cardiovascular System
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have documented lower risks of coronary heart disease and diabetes among moderate alcohol consumers relative to abstainers, but only a randomized clinical trial can provide conclusive evidence for or against these associations. AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe the rationale and design of the Moderate Alcohol and Cardiovascular Health Trial, aimed to assess the cardiometabolic effects of one alcoholic drink daily over an average of six years among adults 50 years or older. METHODS: This multicenter, parallel-arm randomized trial was designed to compare the effects of one standard serving ( approximately 11-15 g) daily of a preferred alcoholic beverage to abstention. The trial aimed to enroll 7800 people at high risk of cardiovascular disease. The primary composite endpoint comprised time to the first occurrence of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal ischemic stroke, hospitalized angina, coronary/carotid revascularization, or total mortality. The trial was designed to provide >80% power to detect a 15% reduction in the risk of the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included diabetes. Adverse effects of special interest included injuries, congestive heart failure, alcohol use disorders, and cancer. RESULTS: We describe the design, governance, masking issues, and data handling. In three months of field center activity until termination by the funder, the trial randomized 32 participants, successfully screened another 70, and identified approximately 400 additional interested individuals. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a feasible design for a long-term randomized trial of moderate alcohol consumption. Such a study will provide the highest level of evidence for the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and will directly inform clinical and public health guidelines.
25 August 2020 In Cardiovascular System
Alcoholic-dilated Cardiomyopathy (ACM) is the most prevalent form of ethanol-induced heart damage. Ethanol induces ACM in a dose-dependent manner, independently of nutrition, vitamin, or electrolyte disturbances. It has synergistic effects with other heart risk factors. ACM produces a progressive reduction in myocardial contractility and heart chamber dilatation, leading to heart failure episodes and arrhythmias. Pathologically, ethanol induces myocytolysis, apoptosis, and necrosis of myocytes, with repair mechanisms causing hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Myocyte ethanol targets include changes in membrane composition, receptors, ion channels, intracellular [Ca(2+)] transients, and structural proteins, and disrupt sarcomere contractility. Cardiac remodeling tries to compensate for this damage, establishing a balance between aggression and defense mechanisms. The final process of ACM is the result of dosage and individual predisposition. The ACM prognosis depends on the degree of persistent ethanol intake. Abstinence is the preferred goal, although controlled drinking may still improve cardiac function. New strategies are addressed to decrease myocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis and try to improve myocyte regeneration, minimizing ethanol-related cardiac damage. Growth factors and cardiomyokines are relevant molecules that may modify this process. Cardiac transplantation is the final measure in end-stage ACM but is limited to those subjects able to achieve abstinence.
25 August 2020 In Phenolic compounds

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the effect of dietary polyphenols on the complex human gut microbiota, and they focused mainly on single polyphenol molecules and select bacterial populations.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of a moderate intake of red wine polyphenols on select gut microbial groups implicated in host health benefits.

DESIGN: Ten healthy male volunteers underwent a randomized, crossover, controlled intervention study. After a washout period, all of the subjects received red wine, the equivalent amount of de-alcoholized red wine, or gin for 20 d each. Total fecal DNA was submitted to polymerase chain reaction(PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time quantitative PCR to monitor and quantify changes in fecal microbiota. Several biochemical markers were measured.

RESULTS: The dominant bacterial composition did not remain constant over the different intake periods. Compared with baseline, the daily consumption of red wine polyphenol for 4 wk significantly increased the number of Enterococcus, Prevotella, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides uniformis, Eggerthella lenta, and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale groups (P < 0.05). In parallel, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and C-reactive protein concentrations decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Moreover, changes in cholesterol and C-reactive protein concentrations were linked to changes in the bifidobacteria number.

CONCLUSION: This study showed that red wine consumption can significantly modulate the growth of select gut microbiota in humans, which suggests possible prebiotic benefits associated with the inclusion of red wine polyphenols in the diet. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN88720134

25 August 2020 In Diabetes

Health benefits of moderate wine consumption have been studied during the past decades, first in observational studies and more recently, in experimental settings and randomized controlled studies. Suggested biological pathways include antioxidant, lipid regulating, and anti-inflammatory effects. Both the alcoholic and polyphenolic components of wine are believed to contribute to these beneficial effects.

Although several of these studies demonstrated protective associations between moderate drinking and cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, neurological disorders, and the metabolic syndrome, no conclusive recommendations exist regarding moderate wine consumption. Yet, it is suggested that the physician and patient should discuss alcohol use. In the CASCADE (CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol) trial, 224 abstainers with type 2 diabetes were randomized to consume red wine, white wine or mineral water for two years.

Here, we summarize our previous findings, offer new evidence concerning the differential effects of wine consumption among men and women, and further suggest that initiating moderate alcohol consumption among well-controlled persons with type 2 diabetes is apparently safe, in regard to changes in heart rate variability and carotid plaque formation

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