17 November 2021 In General Health

BACKGROUND: The association between Parkinson's disease (PD) risk and alcohol intake is a controversial topic.

OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the association between PD risk and alcohol intake.

METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible studies with prospective design on PD risk and alcohol intake. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model and dose-response analysis was performed. Relative risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs were calculated.

RESULTS: Eleven prospective studies were included. Overall, a higher intake of alcohol was inversely associated with PD risk (RR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.95, I (2) = 73.7%). Significant differences existed between the specific types of alcoholic beverages and geographic area. Specifically, a significant association existed for beer (RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.94, I (2) = 0.0%) and studies conducted in Asia (RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.55-0.80, I (2) = 37.3%). Dose-response analysis indicated a nonlinear relationship between PD risk and alcohol exposure. No evidence for publication bias was detected.

CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our meta-analysis suggests that alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of PD, with a nearly U-shaped association. Future studies are warranted to clarify the question of a specific type of alcoholic beverage-dependent association, geographic area effect, and possible threshold effects regarding both the adverse and beneficial effects of alcohol.

22 October 2021 In Cardiovascular System

Many studies conclude that wine consumption is related to lower risk for cardiovascular diseases partially through the amelioration of inflammatory biomarkers. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of wine consumption on the inflammatory response and to compare these effects with the consumption of similar amount of alcohol without the wine micro-constituents in cardiovascular disease patients. Therefore, a randomized, single-blind, controlled, three-arm parallel intervention study was designed. Cardiovascular disease patients were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. In Group A participants consumed no alcohol, in Group B (ethanol group) and Group C (wine group) participants consumed 27 g of alcohol per day. Biological samples were collected at the beginning, on the 4th and 8th week and several biomarkers were measured. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells that were isolated from patients were incubated under basal and inflammatory conditions for 4 and 24 h and the secretion of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) was measured. No significant difference was observed among the three groups before the initiation or during the intervention in the most soluble biomarkers. Higher TNFalpha secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was observed at basal conditions in the ethanol group both at 4 and 24 h of incubation versus baseline secretion. Furthermore, lower secretion of the TauNFalpha was observed after 8 weeks of intake in the wine group versus the ethanol group, both at 4 and 24 h of incubation. In conclusion, the light to moderate wine consumption for 8 weeks revealed an attenuation of the ethanol consumption effect on cytokine secretion at basal conditions from the patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

13 October 2020 In Cardiovascular System
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have documented lower risks of coronary heart disease and diabetes among moderate alcohol consumers relative to abstainers, but only a randomized clinical trial can provide conclusive evidence for or against these associations. AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe the rationale and design of the Moderate Alcohol and Cardiovascular Health Trial, aimed to assess the cardiometabolic effects of one alcoholic drink daily over an average of six years among adults 50 years or older. METHODS: This multicenter, parallel-arm randomized trial was designed to compare the effects of one standard serving ( approximately 11-15 g) daily of a preferred alcoholic beverage to abstention. The trial aimed to enroll 7800 people at high risk of cardiovascular disease. The primary composite endpoint comprised time to the first occurrence of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal ischemic stroke, hospitalized angina, coronary/carotid revascularization, or total mortality. The trial was designed to provide >80% power to detect a 15% reduction in the risk of the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included diabetes. Adverse effects of special interest included injuries, congestive heart failure, alcohol use disorders, and cancer. RESULTS: We describe the design, governance, masking issues, and data handling. In three months of field center activity until termination by the funder, the trial randomized 32 participants, successfully screened another 70, and identified approximately 400 additional interested individuals. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a feasible design for a long-term randomized trial of moderate alcohol consumption. Such a study will provide the highest level of evidence for the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and will directly inform clinical and public health guidelines.
25 August 2020 In Cardiovascular System
Alcoholic-dilated Cardiomyopathy (ACM) is the most prevalent form of ethanol-induced heart damage. Ethanol induces ACM in a dose-dependent manner, independently of nutrition, vitamin, or electrolyte disturbances. It has synergistic effects with other heart risk factors. ACM produces a progressive reduction in myocardial contractility and heart chamber dilatation, leading to heart failure episodes and arrhythmias. Pathologically, ethanol induces myocytolysis, apoptosis, and necrosis of myocytes, with repair mechanisms causing hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Myocyte ethanol targets include changes in membrane composition, receptors, ion channels, intracellular [Ca(2+)] transients, and structural proteins, and disrupt sarcomere contractility. Cardiac remodeling tries to compensate for this damage, establishing a balance between aggression and defense mechanisms. The final process of ACM is the result of dosage and individual predisposition. The ACM prognosis depends on the degree of persistent ethanol intake. Abstinence is the preferred goal, although controlled drinking may still improve cardiac function. New strategies are addressed to decrease myocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis and try to improve myocyte regeneration, minimizing ethanol-related cardiac damage. Growth factors and cardiomyokines are relevant molecules that may modify this process. Cardiac transplantation is the final measure in end-stage ACM but is limited to those subjects able to achieve abstinence.
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