18 August 2023 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown inconsistent findings regarding the association of light to moderate alcohol consumption with cause-specific mortality. Therefore, this study sought to examine the prospective association of alcohol consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the US population.

METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study of adults aged 18 years or older in the National Health Interview Survey (1997 to 2014) with linkage to the National Death Index records through December 31, 2019. Self-reported alcohol consumption was categorized into seven groups (lifetime abstainers; former infrequent or regular drinkers; and current infrequent, light, moderate, or heavy drinkers). The main outcome was all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 12.65 years, among the 918,529 participants (mean age 46.1 years; 48.0% male), 141,512 adults died from all causes, 43,979 from cardiovascular disease (CVD), 33,222 from cancer, 8246 from chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, 5572 from accidents (unintentional injuries), 4776 from Alzheimer's disease, 4845 from diabetes mellitus, 2815 from influenza and pneumonia, and 2692 from nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, or nephrosis. Compared with lifetime abstainers, current infrequent, light, or moderate drinkers were at a lower risk of mortality from all causes [infrequent-hazard ratio: 0.87; 95% confidence interval: 0.84 to 0.90; light: 0.77; 0.75 to 0.79; moderate 0.82; 0.80 to 0.85], CVD, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and influenza and pneumonia. Also, light or moderate drinkers were associated with lower risk of mortality from diabetes mellitus and nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, or nephrosis. In contrast, heavy drinkers had a significantly higher risk of mortality from all causes, cancer, and accidents (unintentional injuries). Furthermore, binge drinking >/= 1 day/week was associated with a higher risk of mortality from all causes (1.15; 1.09 to 1.22), cancer (1.22; 1.10 to 1.35), and accidents (unintentional injuries) (1.39; 1.11 to 1.74).

CONCLUSIONS: Infrequent, light, and moderate alcohol consumption were inversely associated with mortality from all causes, CVD, chronic lower respiratory tract diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and influenza and pneumonia. Light or moderate alcohol consumption might also have a beneficial effect on mortality from diabetes mellitus and nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, or nephrosis. However, heavy or binge had a higher risk of all-cause, cancer, and accidents (unintentional injuries) mortality.

25 January 2023 In Phenolic compounds

Background: Resveratrol is a polyphenol chemical that naturally occurs in many plant-based dietary products, most notably, red wine. Discovered in 1939, widespread interest in the potential health benefits of resveratrol emerged in the 1970s in response to epidemiological data on the cardioprotective effects of wine. Objective: To explore the background of resveratrol (including its origins, stability, and metabolism), the metabolic effects of resveratrol and its mechanisms of action, and a potential future role of dietary resveratrol in the lifestyle management of obesity.

Data sources: We performed a narrative review, based on relevant articles written in English from a Pubmed search, using the following search terms: "resveratrol", "obesity", "Diabetes Mellitus", and "insulin sensitivity". Results: Following its ingestion, resveratrol undergoes extensive metabolism. This includes conjugation (with sulfate and glucuronate) within enterocytes, hydrolyzation and reduction within the gut through the action of the microbiota (with the formation of metabolites such as dihydroresveratrol), and enterohepatic circulation via the bile.

Ex vivo studies on adipose tissue reveal that resveratrol inhibits adipogenesis and prevents the accumulation of triglycerides through effects on the expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and sirtuin 1, respectively. Furthermore, resveratrol induces anti-inflammatory effects, supported by data from animal-based studies. Limited data from human-based studies reveal that resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity and fasting glucose levels in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and may improve inflammatory status in human obesity.

Although numerous mechanisms may underlie the metabolic benefits of resveratrol, evidence supports a role in its interaction with the gut microbiota and modulation of protein targets, including sirtuins and proteins related to nitric oxide, insulin, and nuclear hormone receptors (such as PPARgamma). Conclusions: Despite much interest, there remain important unanswered questions regarding its optimal dosage (and how this may differ between and within individuals), and possible benefits within the general population, including the potential for weight-loss and improved metabolic function. Future studies should properly address these important questions before we can advocate the widespread adoption of dietary resveratrol supplementation.

28 April 2022 In Cardiovascular System

This Data in Brief article contains further sensitivity analysis data related to the article "Alcohol consumption and mortality: the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study" [1]. Alcohol consumption data of participants in LURIC was collected using a questionnaire. This data was used to calculate the amount of alcohol consumption in g ethanol per day by using standard volumes and standard vol-% in different beverages in Germany.

The data shown here provide results from the LURIC study stratified by gender. Furthermore, the LURIC study results were reproduced using other classifications, which were stratified in different literature data. In addition, our analysis provides data of alcohol consumption for smokers and non-smokers in the LURIC study cohort separately.

23 February 2022 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: The dose-response association between alcohol consumption and the subsequent pancreatic cancer risk by individuals' glycaemic status is unclear.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD: This large-scale nationwide cohort study included 9,514,171 adults without cancer who underwent health examinations under the Korean National Health Insurance Service in 2009 and were followed-up until December 2017 for pancreatic cancer development. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed.

RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 7.3 years, 12,818 patients were newly-diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Among individuals with normoglycemia, a J-shaped association was observed between the frequency of alcohol consumption (1-2 and >/=5 days/week: hazards ratio [HR]; 95% CI, 0.91; 0.85-0.97 and 1.13; 1.002-1.27, respectively) and pancreatic cancer risk, after adjusting for potential confounders. However, in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), pancreatic cancer risk increased with increased frequency and average daily amount of alcohol consumption (all P for trend <0.01). IFG combined with heavy alcohol consumption (30 g/day) was associated with 38% increased pancreatic cancer risk (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.23-1.54). Diabetes was associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk regardless of alcohol consumption and 70% increased risk even in non-drinkers (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.61-1.80).

CONCLUSIONS: The J-shaped dose-response association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk was observed only in individuals with normoglycemia, not in patients with IFG and diabetes. Complete alcohol abstinence may help reduce pancreatic cancer risk in patients with IFG and diabetes.

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