23 January 2015 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

AIM: The aim of the study was to examine, for female and male students separately, whether perceived quality of relationships with peers and parents and relations in school predict self-reported frequent drunkenness among Spanish adolescents.

METHODS: The Spanish data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (HBSC) 2010 survey were used including 1177 female and 1126 male students aged between 15 and 16 years.

RESULTS: For both genders, students reporting low school satisfaction had increased odds of frequent drunkenness. Among females, low and medium levels of classmate support were associated with decreased odds of frequent drunkenness, whereas low perceived maternal knowledge as well as medium and low satisfaction with the family increased odds of being frequently drunk. The proportion of male students reporting medium satisfaction with friendships had significantly lower odds of frequent drunkenness compared with those with high level of satisfaction with friendships.

CONCLUSION: We found different associations between perceived quality of social relations and frequent drunkenness among male and female students. Results showed that social relations seemed to better predictors of frequent drunkenness among female than male students and that other factors than social relations may contribute to explain excessive alcohol use among Spanish adolescents.

23 January 2015 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

BACKGROUND: Two ecological cross-sectional studies which relied on national survey data (U.S. and Australia) have shown that starting drinking at a younger age increases the frequency of heavy drinking in the general population, including those with good mental and physical health status. This study further investigates the hypothesis that age at first use of alcohol increases the risk of heavy alcohol use by applying data from a longitudinal study.

METHOD: This study used public-use data collected from Wave I, Wave III and Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in the United States. The association between age at first use of alcohol and heavy alcohol use (5+ drinks per occasion) was examined with two different multivariate analysis approaches with data from 2316 participants: ordered logistic regression models and Poisson regression models with longitudinal data settings. In addition, the newly developed proxy outcome approach was further used to estimate and adjust for unmeasured/unobserved confounding factors.

RESULTS: Age at first use of alcohol before 18 years was associated significantly higher risk of heavy alcohol use at follow-up.

CONCLUSION: After adjusting for known and residual confounders, younger age at first use of alcohol was associated with significantly higher risk of heavy alcohol use, moreover, we posit that the association observed from this longitudinal study is probably causal. Abstinence from alcohol until the age of 18 years will likely reduce individual risk of alcohol-related problems in adulthood. In the longer term, delayed onset of exposure with widespread abstinence among this age group is also likely to reduce the overall prevalence of alcohol-related problems in the general population.

23 January 2015 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

Aims : The purpose of this study is to examine the gender-specific associations of different dimensions of individual-level social capital with regular alcohol consumption and binge drinking in 16-17 years old adolescents in Crete, Greece.

Methods : Of the 835 randomly selected students, 708 completed the Youth Social Capital Scale and the Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire from April through June 2008 and 650 (92%) were included in this analysis. The outcome of interest was regular alcohol use and binge drinking. A gender specific backward stepwise logistic multivariate regression was performed adjusted for potential confounders.

Findings : For both boys and girls, higher score on some structural social capital subscales was associated, per unit increase, with increased likelihood of regular drinking. Neighbourhood connections were also associated with increased binge drinking in girls. Cognitive social capital subscales were associated with decreased likelihood of binge drinking in girls. For both genders, total social capital-score was positively associated with the probability of regular, but not of binge drinking.

Conclusions : Cognitive and structural social capital dimensions have different patterns of association with regular and binge alcohol use in adolescent boys and girls. Social capital's dimensions should receive greater emphasis for the design of effective preventive interventions in adolescence, particularly in the light of an increasing prevalence of alcohol consumption in modern societies.

23 January 2015 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

BACKGROUND: Older adults are a growing segment of the European population and alcohol is an important cause of disease burden; thus, it is noteworthy that little information is available on alcohol intake among older adults in Europe.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine alcohol consumption patterns and their association with demographic and clinical variables in the older population of Spain.

DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study.

PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: The sample included 3,058 individuals, representative of the Spanish population aged >/=60 years during 2008-2010.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Regular alcohol consumption was measured with a validated diet history questionnaire. The threshold between moderate and heavy drinking was >/=40 g alcohol/day in men (>/=24 g in women). Binge drinking was defined as intake of >/=80 g alcohol in men (>/=60 g in women) during any drinking occasion in the previous month, and problem drinking by a CAGE score >/=2.


STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PERFORMED: The prevalence and 95% CI of the drinking patterns were calculated after accounting for sampling design.

RESULTS: The prevalence of moderate drinking was 44.3% (95% CI 42.0% to 46.6%) and of heavy drinking was 7.8% (95% CI 6.7% to 8.9%). In total, 68.4% (95% CI 65.7% to 71.2%) of individuals obtained >80% of alcohol from wine and 61.8% (95% CI 58.9% to 64.6%) drank only with meals. Furthermore, 1% (95% CI 0.6% to 1.4%) showed binge drinking and 3.1% (95% CI 2.3% to 3.8%) showed problem drinking. Heavy alcohol consumption was significantly more frequent in men. Moderate alcohol consumption was significantly less frequent among women, persons who were not married, living alone, with a diagnosis of diabetes, receiving treatment for diabetes, and with suboptimal self-rated health. About 5% to 10% of individuals with diagnosed hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease showed heavy drinking. Among those taking sleeping pills or antidiabetes or antithrombotic treatment, 37% to 46% had moderate alcohol intake and 5% to 8% had heavy intake.

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption among older adults in Spain is frequent and mostly consistent with the traditional Mediterranean drinking pattern. However, a proportion of individuals were heavy drinkers and used medication that may interact with alcohol.

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