15 June 2015 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption has been suggested to increase risk of breast cancer through a mechanism that also increases mammographic density. Whether the association between alcohol consumption and mammographic density is modified by background breast cancer risk has, however, not been studied.

METHODS: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 53 060 Swedish women aged 40-74 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed using a web-based self-administered questionnaire. Mammographic density was measured using the fully-automated volumetric Volpara method. The Tyrer-Cuzick prediction model was used to estimate risk of developing breast cancer in the next 10 years. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and volumetric mammographic density and the potential influence of Tyrer-Cuzick breast cancer risk.

RESULTS: Overall, increasing alcohol consumption was associated with higher absolute dense volume (cm3) and per cent dense volume (%). The association between alcohol consumption and absolute dense volume was most pronounced among women with the highest (5%) Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year risk. Among high-risk women, women consuming 5.0-9.9, 10.0-19.9, 20.0-29.9, and 30.0-40.0 g of alcohol per day had 2.6 cm3 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2-4.9), 2.9 cm3 (95% CI, -0.6 to 6.3), 4.6 cm3 (95% CI, 1.5-7.7), and 10.8 cm3 (95% CI, 4.8-17.0) higher absolute dense volume, respectively, as compared with women abstaining from alcohol. A trend of increasing alcohol consumption and higher absolute dense volume was seen in women at low (3%) risk, but not in women at moderate (3.0-4.9%) risk.

CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption may increase breast cancer risk through increasing mammographic density, particularly in women at high background risk of breast cancer.

British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 2 June 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.185 www.bjcancer.com

11 May 2015 In Liver Disease

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent cross-sectional studies have been reported the possibility that light to moderate alcohol consumption might be negatively associated with fatty liver. However, there has been no large-scale longitudinal study addressing an impact of alcohol consumption on a development of fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonography. Thus, we investigated the impact of alcohol consumption on a natural history of fatty liver.

METHODS: We analyzed 5437 apparently healthy Japanese who received the health checkup programs repeatedly over 10 years. In this study, we used a standardized questionnaire for addressing the medical history and lifestyle and used a standardized ultrasonographic diagnosis for fatty liver. The total amount of alcohol consumed per week was calculated and classified into four grades; none or minimal, light, moderate, or heavy alcohol consumption (< 40, 40-140, 140-280 or > 280 g/week, respectively). The hazard risks of alcohol consumption for the development of fatty liver were calculated by Cox hazard model after adjusting age, BMI, and parameters for lifestyle.

RESULTS: During 10 years of follow-up, fatty liver was continuously diagnosed just in 10% of men and 20% of women with fatty liver at the baseline. In men, the adjusted hazard risks of light and moderate alcohol consumption for the development of fatty liver were 0.72 (95% confidence interval 0.60-0.86, P < 0.001) and 0.69 (0.57-0.84, P < 0.001), respectively. However, they were not significant in women.

CONCLUSIONS: The newly onset of fatty liver was significantly repressed in apparently healthy men who consume light to moderate alcohol.

26 March 2015 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: Accumulative evidence in the literature suggests alcohol consumption is a protective factor of the metabolic syndrome (MS). However, few studies investigated the relationship between alcohol consumption and components of MS. We examined association of several types of alcoholic beverage with components of MS among people in rural China.

METHODS: In the Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study (NMSS), a cross-sectional study, a total of 20,502 participants, including 13,505 women and 6,997 men aged 18-74 years, were recruited between 2007 and 2008 in Nantong, China. Socio-economic status, dietary intake, physical exercise, alcoholic beverage consumption, and smoking status information were obtained, and triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprtein cholesterol (HDL-c), blood pressure (BP) and blood glucose level were examined for all participants. Logistic regression model and the restricted cubic spline approach were used to analyze the associations between alcoholic beverage consumption and MS components.

RESULTS: The MS prevalence was 21.1% in the whole population, which was significantly low among drinkers (20.6%), compared with non-drinkers (23.6%) in women, and was comparable in men (16.4% versus 17.1%). High HDL-c level was observed among drinkers, compared with non-drinkers in both men and women. Low TG level and Systolic BP (SBP) were found only among rice wine drinkers in women, and high waist circumference, high TG and BP were found among beer and liquor drinkers in men. Furthermore, we found that the highest quartile of rice wine drink in women may decrease 24% risk of high TG, 30% risk of low HDL-c and 43% risk of high glucose among MS components cases respectively, compared with non-drinkers (p for trend <0.01 for those three components). While compared non-drinkers among men, the highest quartile of liquor drink may increase 32% risk of high SBP, 55% risk of high Diastolic BP (DBP) and 34% risk of abdominal obesity among MS components cases respectively, but decrease 45% risk of low HDL-c (p for trend <0.05 for those four components).

CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that all alcoholic beverages increased HDL-c level. Rice wine decreased both TG level and blood glucose in women only and it could be one of healthy alcoholic beverages in MS prevention in Chinese women. While excessive liquor consumption increased BP and waist circumference level and it may lead to hypertension and central obesity in Chinese men.

12 March 2015 In Liver Disease

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Roles of alcohol consumption in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are still controversial, although several cross-sectional studies have suggested the beneficial effect of light to moderate drinking on fatty liver. We analyzed the longitudinal relationship between drinking pattern and fatty liver.

METHODS: We included 5297 Japanese individuals (3773 men and 1524 women) who underwent a baseline study in 2003 and follow-up at least once from 2004 to 2006. Generalized estimating equation was used to estimate any association between drinking pattern and fatty liver assessed by ultrasonography.

RESULTS: At baseline, 1179 men (31.2%) and 235 women (15.4%) had fatty liver; 2802 men (74.2%) and 436 women (28.6%) reported alcohol consumption. At the latest follow-up, 348 of 2594 men (13.4%) and 101 of 1289 women (7.8%) had newly developed fatty liver; 285 of 1179 men (24.2%) and 70 of 235 women (29.8%) demonstrated a remission of fatty liver. In men, drinking 0.1-69.9g/week (odds ratio, 0.79 [95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.90]), drinking 70.0-139.9g/week (0.73 [0.63-0.84]), drinking 140.0-279.9g/week (0.69 [0.60-0.79]), and drinking 280.0g/week (0.68 [0.58-0.79]) were inversely associated with fatty liver after adjusting for obesity, exercise, and smoking. In women, drinking 0.1-69.9g/week (0.71 [0.52-0.96]) and drinking 70.0-139.9g/week (0.67 [0.45-0.98]) were inversely associated with fatty liver after the adjustment.

CONCLUSIONS: Light to moderate alcohol consumption, or even somewhat excessive amounts especially in men, was likely to protect most individuals against fatty liver over time.

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