21 April 2016 In Liver Disease

BACKGROUND: The alcohol-attributable fraction (AAF) quantifies alcohol's disease burden. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is influenced by alcohol consumption per capita, duration, gender, ethnicity, and other comorbidities. In this study, we investigated the association between AAF/alcohol-related liver mortality and alcohol consumption per capita, while stratifying to per-capita gross domestic product (GDP).

METHODS: Data obtained from the World Health Organization and World Bank for both genders on AAF on liver disease, per-capita alcohol consumption (L/y), and per-capita GDP (USD/y) were used to conduct a cross-sectional study. Countries were classified as "high-income" and "very low income" if their respective per-capita GDP was greater than $30,000 or less than $1,000. Differences in total alcohol consumption per capita and AAF were calculated using a 2-sample t test. Scatterplots were generated to supplement the Pearson correlation coefficients, and F test was conducted to assess for differences in variance of ALD between high-income and very low income countries.

FINDINGS: Twenty-six and 27 countries met the criteria for high-income and very low income countries, respectively. Alcohol consumption per capita was higher in high-income countries. AAF and alcohol consumption per capita for both genders in high-income and very low income countries had a positive correlation. The F test yielded an F value of 1.44 with P = .357. No statistically significant correlation was found among alcohol types and AAF. Significantly higher mortality from ALD was found in very low income countries relative to high-income countries.

DISCUSSION: Previous studies had noted a decreased AAF in low-income countries as compared to higher-income countries. However, the non-statistically significant difference between AAF variances of low-income and high-income countries was found by this study. A possible explanation is that both high-income and low-income populations will consume sufficient amount of alcohol, irrespective of its type, enough to weigh into equivalent AAF.

CONCLUSIONS: No significant difference of AAF variance was found between high-income and very low income countries relating to sex-specific alcohol consumption per capita. Alcohol consumption per capita was greater in high-income countries. Type of preferred alcohol did not correlate with AAF. ALD related mortality was less in high-income countries as a result of better developed healthcare systems. ALD remains a significant burden globally, requiring prevention from socioeconomic, medical, and political realms.

26 November 2015 In General Health

BACKGROUND: The effect of alcohol consumption on prostate health and reproductive hormone profiles has long been investigated and currently, no consensus has been reached. Additionally, large studies focusing on this topic are relatively rare in China.

PURPOSE: To investigate the association of alcohol consumption with prostate measurements and reproductive hormone profiles in Chinese population; and to examine the relationship between hormone levels and prostate measurements.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 4535 men from four representative provinces of China. Demographic details, family history of prostate disease, tobacco and alcohol consumption, as well as International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) were collected through a questionnaire. Total prostate specific antingen (total PSA), free PSA, free PSA/total PSA ratio (f/tPSA), and reproductive hormones were measured in serum. Multi-variable regression models were used to test for association of alcohol consumption with markers of prostate health, used to test for association of alcohol consumption with reproductive hormones, and reproductive hormones with markers of prostate health.

RESULTS: Alcohol consumption had no obvious impact on total PSA concentration and I-PSS. Current drinkers had lower level of free PSA (beta = -0.11, p = 0.02) and f/tPSA (beta = -0.03, p = 0.005), former drinkers also had lower level of free PSA (beta = -0.19, p = 0.02) when compared with never drinkers. Lower Luteinizing hormone (LH) (beta = -1.05, p = 0.01), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (beta = -4.71, p = 0.01) and higher estradiol (beta = 7.81, p = 0.01) was found in current drinkers than never drinkers, whereas higher LH (beta = 1.04, p = 0.04) and free testosterone (FT) (beta = 0.03, p = 0.02) was detected in former drinkers than never drinkers. Furthermore, LH was positively associated with f/tPSA (beta = 0.002, p = 0.006), SHBG was also positively related with free PSA (beta = 0.003, p = 0.003) and f/tPSA (beta = 0.0004, p = 0.01). Both total testosterone (TT) and FT were inversely related with I-PSS (OR = 0.97, 95% CI, 0.95-0.98; OR = 0.23, 95% CI, 0.11-0.45, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption could affect serum free PSA concentration and also f/tPSA ratio, and also acts as an endocrine disruptor on the male reproductive hormone profiles. LH and SHBG were positively related with fPSA and f/tPSA, and higher level of TT and FT may be helpful for improving participants' subjective symptoms.

23 July 2015 In Diabetes

Previous studies on the association between alcohol intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have yielded inconsistent results. Besides, few studies have analysed the effects of red wine (RW) consumption on the prevalence of the MetS and its components. As moderate RW drinkers have a better lipid profile and lower incidence rates of diabetes, hypertension and abdominal obesity, all components of the MetS, it was hypothesised that moderate RW consumption could be associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS. In the present cross-sectional study of 5801 elderly participants at a high cardiovascular risk included in the PREDIMED (Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea) study, 3897 fulfilled the criteria of the MetS at baseline. RW intake was recorded using a validated 137-item FFQ. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to estimate the association between RW intake and the prevalence of the MetS. Compared with non-drinkers, moderate RW drinkers ( >/= 1 drink/d) were found to have a reduced risk of prevalent MetS (OR 0.56, 95 % CI 0.45, 0.68; P< 0.001), a lower risk of having an abnormal waist circumference (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.46, 0.77; P< 0.001), low HDL-cholesterol concentrations (OR 0.42, 95 % CI 0.32, 0.53; P< 0.001), high blood pressure (OR 0.28, 95 % CI 0.17, 0.45; P< 0.001) and high fasting plasma glucose concentrations (OR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.54, 0.82; P< 0.001) after adjusting for several confounders. This association was found to be stronger in female participants, in participants aged < 70 years and in participants who were former or current smokers. No significant association was found between RW intake ( >/= 1 drink/d) and TAG concentrations. In conclusion, moderate RW consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS in an elderly Mediterranean population at a high cardiovascular risk.

23 July 2015 In Diabetes

We examined the association between alcohol-drinking pattern and diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study included 12,486 participants (5551 men and 6935 women) who participated in the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized alcohol-drinking pattern into three groups based on the alcohol-use disorders identification test (AUDIT): low-risk (score: 0-7), intermediate-risk (score: 8-14), and high-risk (score: >/=15). DM was defined as having fasting plasma glucose >/=126 mg/dL or taking glucose-lowering medication, including insulin therapy. In the study population, 25.2% of men and 4.7% of women were high-risk drinkers. DM prevalence was 9.2% in men and 5.4% in women. DM prevalence was 9.0% and 5.7% in the low-risk drinking group, 7.6% and 4.1% in the intermediate-risk drinking group, and 11.2% and 3.5% in the high-risk drinking group in men and women, respectively. Compared to the low-risk drinking group, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of men and women in the intermediate-risk drinking group for DM were 1.043 (0.779-1.396) and 1.139 (0.712-1.824), respectively, and 1.480 (1.133-1.933) and 0.827 (0.296-2.311) in the high-risk drinking group, after adjusting for age and other confounding factors. In conclusion, high-risk drinking appears to be associated with a higher risk of DM in men, but not in women.

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