06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: The risk of cardiovascular diseases is lower among moderate alcohol drinkers than among both nondrinkers and heavy drinkers. However, factors that can account for the U-shaped or J-shaped relationship between daily alcohol consumption and incident cardiovascular diseases remain obscure.

PURPOSE: The present cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between alcohol consumption and serum adiponectin levels.

METHOD: Total adiponectin was measured in 527 males participating in health check-up programs (age range 40-86 years, mean 60.5 years). Based on questionnaire responses, alcohol intake was categorized into three groups: none or occasional (A1); /=3 days/week (A2); and >/=50 g/day and >/=3 days/week (A3).

RESULTS: No significant differences in adiponectin levels were observed among the three alcohol consumption groups of subjects without the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In subjects with the MetS, the adiponectin level was significantly higher in the A2 (moderate drinker) group than in both the A1 and A3 groups. MetS subjects in group A2 had higher HDL-C levels than those in A1, but levels in group A3 were not significantly different from those in group A2.

CONCLUSION: An increased adiponectin level in moderate alcohol drinkers who have MetS may contribute to the U-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular events, in addition to the involvement of HDL-C.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

INTRODUCTION: Moderate alcohol consumption is protective against cardiovascular disease (CAD). ADHs are major enzymes of alcohol metabolism. A polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenases 1C gene (ADH1C) was reportedly associated with the protective effect of alcohol consumption on CAD risk and risk factor levels.

AIMS: The aim of our study was to investigate whether the association of alcohol consumption with metabolic risk factors for CAD is related to ADH1C variants.

METHODS: IMMIDIET is a cross-sectional study of 974 healthy male-female pairs living together, randomly recruited in Belgium, Italy and England. The rs698 ADH1C polymorphism was genotyped. A 1-year recall food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate alcohol intake. RESULTS: The intake of alcohol did not vary in relation to ADH1C genotypes. BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, HDL or total cholesterol, triglycerides and FVII:ag levels were positively associated with alcohol intake in men (multivariate ANOVA). Regression coefficient for alcohol and BMI or WC was progressively higher in heterozygotes and gamma 2 homozygotes as compared to gamma 1 homozygotes (p=0.006 and p=0.03 for interaction, respectively). No interaction was found for other risk factors. In women, alcohol intake was positively associated with HDL, LDL and FVII:ag levels but no interaction was found between ADH1C polymorphism and any risk factor.

CONCLUSION: Regulation of ADH1C genotype on the association between alcohol consumption, BMI and WC was found in men from different European countries. In men homozygous for the gamma 2 alleles, intake of alcohol was positively associated with both BMI and WC values.

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess whether young binge drinkers (BD) have impaired macrovascular and microvascular function and cardiovascular disease risk factors compared with age-matched alcohol abstainers (A).

BACKGROUND: Binge drinking rates are highest on college campuses and among those age 18 to 25 years; however, macrovascular and microvascular endothelial function in young adults with histories of repeated binge drinking (>/= 5 standard drinks in 2 h in men, >/= 4 standard drinks in 2 h in women) has not been investigated.

METHODS: Cardiovascular profiles, brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and flow-independent nitroglycerin (NTG)-mediated dilation and vasoreactivity of resistance arteries (isolated from gluteal fat biopsies) were evaluated in A and BD.

RESULTS: Men and women (18 to 25 years of age; A, n = 17; BD, n = 19) were enrolled. In the BD group, past-month mean number of binge episodes was 6 +/- 1, and the mean duration of binge drinking behavior was 4 +/- 0.6 years. FMD and NTG-mediated dilation were significantly lower in the BD group (FMD: 8.4 +/- 0.7%, p = 0.022; NTG-mediated dilation: 19.6 +/- 2%, p = 0.009) than in the A group (FMD: 11 +/- 0.7%; NTG-mediated dilation: 28.6 +/- 2%). Acetylcholine-induced and sodium nitroprusside-induced dilation in resistance arteries was not significantly different between the A and BD groups. However, endothelin-1-induced constriction was significantly enhanced in the BD group compared with the A group (p = 0.032). No differences between groups were found in blood pressure, lipoproteins, and C-reactive protein.

CONCLUSIONS: Alterations in the macrocirculation and microcirculation may represent early clinical manifestations of cardiovascular risk in otherwise healthy young BD. This study has important clinical implications for screening young adults for a repeated history of binge drinking.

06 May 2014 In Cancer




Acrylamide exposure was investigated in subgroups of the EPIC study population (510 subjects from 9 European countries, randomly selected and stratified by age, gender, and smoking status) using hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its primary metabolite glycidamide (HbGA). Blood samples were analyzed for HbAA and HbGA by HPLC/MS/MS. Statistical models for HbAA and HbGA were developed including body mass index (BMI), educational level, and physical activity. A large variability in acrylamide exposure and metabolism between individuals and country groups was observed with HbAA and HbGA values ranging between 15-623 and 8-377 pmol/g of Hb, respectively. Both adducts differed significantly by country, sex, and smoking status. HbGA values were significantly lower in high alcohol consumers than in moderate consumers. With increasing BMI, HbGA in nonsmokers and HbAA in smokers decreased significantly. In the assessment of potential health effects related to acrylamide exposure, country of origin, BMI, alcohol consumption, sex, and smoking status should be considered.




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