15 June 2022 In General Health

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Biological age (BA) is the hypothetical underlying age of an organism and has been proposed as a more powerful predictor of health than chronological age (CA). The difference between BA and CA (Deltaage) reflects the rate of biological aging, with lower values indicating slowed-down aging. We sought to compare the relationship of four a priori-defined dietary patterns, including a traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) and three non-Mediterranean diets, with biological aging (Deltaage) among Italian adults. We also examined distinctive nutritional traits of these diets as potential mediators of such associations.

METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis on a sub-cohort of 4510 subjects (aged >/=35 y; 52.0% women) from the Moli-sani Study (enrolment, 2005-2010). Food intake was recorded by a 188-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. A Mediterranean diet score (MDS) was used as exposure and compared with non-Mediterranean dietary patterns, i.e. DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), Palaeolithic and the Nordic diets. A Deep Neural Network based on 36 blood biomarkers was used to compute BA and the resulting Deltaage (BA-CA), which was tested as outcome in multivariable linear regressions adjusted for clinical factors, lifestyles and sociodemographic factors.

RESULTS: In a multivariable-adjusted model, 1 standard deviation increase in the MDS was inversely associated with Deltaage (beta = -0.23; 95%CI -0.40, -0.07), and similar findings were observed with the DASH diet (beta = -0.17; 95%CI -0.33, -0.01). High dietary polyphenol content explained 29.8% (p = 0.04) and 65.8% (p = 0.02) of these associations, respectively, while other nutritional factors analysed (e.g. dietary fibre) were unlikely to be on the pathway. No significant associations were found with either the Palaeolithic or the Nordic diets.

CONCLUSIONS: Increasing adherence to either the traditional MD or the DASH diet was associated with delayed biological aging, possibly through their high polyphenol content.

15 June 2022 In Diabetes

AIMS: Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of several dietary patterns plus physical activity to reduce diabetes onset in people with prediabetes. However, there is no evidence on the effect from the Mediterranean diet on the progression from prediabetes to diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the effect from high adherence to Mediterranean diet on the risk of diabetes in individuals with prediabetes.

METHODS: Prospective cohort study in Spanish Primary Care setting. A total of 1184 participants with prediabetes based on levels of fasting plasma glucose and/or glycated hemoglobin were followed up for a mean of 4.2 years. A total of 210 participants developed diabetes type 2 during the follow up. Hazard ratios of diabetes onset were estimated by Cox proportional regression models associated to high versus low/medium adherence to Mediterranean diet. Different propensity score methods were used to control for potential confounders.

RESULTS: Incidence rate of diabetes in participants with high versus low/medium adherence to Mediterranean diet was 2.9 versus 4.8 per 100 persons-years. The hazard ratios adjusted for propensity score and by inverse probability weighting (IPW) had identical magnitude: 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.93). The hazard ratio in the adjusted model using propensity score matching 1:2 was 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.84).

CONCLUSIONS: These propensity score analyses suggest that high adherence to Mediterranean diet reduces diabetes risk in people with prediabetes.

15 June 2022 In Diabetes

PURPOSE: Previous meta-analyses assessed the association of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since then, new large-scale cohort studies have been published. In addition, dose-response relation was not previously investigated and the certainty of evidence was not assessed. We aimed to explore the dose-response relationship between adherence to the MedDiet and the risk of T2D.

METHODS: We did a systematic search using PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science up to April 2021 for prospective cohort studies of the relationship between adherence to the MedDiet and the risk of T2D in the general population. The summary relative risks (RR) and 95%CI were estimated by applying a random-effects model.

RESULTS: Fourteen prospective cohort studies (410,303 participants and 41,466 cases) were included. There was an inverse association for the highest versus lowest category of adherence to the MedDiet (RR: 0.79, 95%CI 0.72, 0.88; I(2) = 82%, n = 14; Risk difference: - 21 per 1000 person, 95%CI - 28, - 12; GRADE = moderate certainty), and for a 2-point increment in the MedDiet adherence score (RR: 0.86, 95%CI 0.82, 0.91; n = 13). The RR remained significant after controlling for important confounders and in almost all subgroups, especially subgroups defined by geographical region. We observed an inverse linear association between MedDiet adherence score and T2D incidence.

CONCLUSION: Adherence to the MedDiet was inversely related to T2D risk in a dose-response manner. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet may be a good advice for the primary prevention of T2D.

REGISTRY AND REGISTRY NUMBER: PROSPERO (CRD42021246589).

15 June 2022 In Cancer
We examined associations between sex-specific alcohol intake trajectories and alcohol-related cancer risk using data from 22 756 women and 15 701 men aged 40 to 69 years at baseline in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Alcohol intake for 10-year periods from age 20 until the decade encompassing recruitment, calculated using recalled beverage-specific frequency and quantity, was used to estimate group-based sex-specific intake trajectories. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for primary invasive alcohol-related cancer (upper aerodigestive tract, breast, liver and colorectum). Three distinct alcohol intake trajectories for women (lifetime abstention, stable light, increasing moderate) and six for men (lifetime abstention, stable light, stable moderate, increasing heavy, early decreasing heavy, late decreasing heavy) were identified. 2303 incident alcohol-related cancers were diagnosed during 485 525 person-years in women and 789 during 303 218 person-years in men. For men, compared with lifetime abstention, heavy intake (mean >/= 60 g/day) at age 20 to 39 followed by either an early (from age 40 to 49) (early decreasing heavy; HR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.25-2.44) or late decrease (from age 60 to 69) (late decreasing heavy; HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.28-2.93), and moderate intake (mean
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